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Spatial Segregation and Socio-Economic Mobility in European Cities

Author

Listed:
  • van Ham, Maarten

    () (Delft University of Technology)

  • Tammaru, Tiit

    () (University of Tartu)

  • de Vuijst, Elise

    () (Delft University of Technology)

  • Zwiers, Merle

    () (Delft University of Technology)

Abstract

Income inequality is increasing in European cities and this rising inequality has a spatial footprint in cities and neighbourhoods. Poor and rich people are increasingly living separated and this can threaten the social sustainability of cities. Low income people, often with an ethnic minority background, can get cut off from important social networks and mainstream society, and this can lead to social unrest. Increasing inequality and socio-economic segregation is therefore a major concern for local and national governments. Socio-economic segregation is the outcome of a combination of inequality and poverty, and the spatial organisation of urban housing markets. Poverty, and living in poverty concentration neighbourhoods is transmitted between generations and neighbourhood poverty is reproduced over time through to the residential mobility behaviour of households. Urban policy often focusses on reducing segregation through physical measures in cities, such as demolishing houses in deprived neighbourhoods and replacing them with housing for the middle classes. Such policies will not solve the underlying causes of segregation, but only redistribute poverty over cities. Policy initiatives should first of all focus on reducing inequality by creating equal opportunities for people and invest in education and training. Inclusive growth strategies should combine both people-based and area-based policy measures.

Suggested Citation

  • van Ham, Maarten & Tammaru, Tiit & de Vuijst, Elise & Zwiers, Merle, 2016. "Spatial Segregation and Socio-Economic Mobility in European Cities," IZA Discussion Papers 10277, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10277
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Maarten van Ham & Peteke Feijten, 2008. "Who Wants to Leave the Neighbourhood? The Effect of Being Different from the Neighbourhood Population on Wishes to Move," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 40(5), pages 1151-1170, May.
    2. Chris Hamnett, 1994. "Social Polarisation in Global Cities: Theory and Evidence," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 31(3), pages 401-424, April.
    3. Lina Hedman & Maarten van Ham & David Manley, 2011. "Neighbourhood Choice and Neighbourhood Reproduction," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 43(6), pages 1381-1399, June.
    4. repec:mpr:mprres:5599 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. van Ham, Maarten & Tammaru, Tiit, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 9663, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Rowland Atkinson & Keith Kintrea, 2002. "Area effects: what do they mean for British housing and regeneration policy?," European Journal of Housing Policy, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 147-166.
    7. Galster, George, 2002. "An economic efficiency analysis of deconcentrating poverty populations," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 303-329, December.
    8. W. Clark, 1991. "Residential preferences and neighborhood racial segregation: A test of the schelling segregation model," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 28(1), pages 1-19, February.
    9. Lina Hedman & David Manley & Maarten van Ham & John Östh, 2015. "Cumulative exposure to disadvantage and the intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood effects," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 195-215.
    10. Schelling, Thomas C, 1969. "Models of Segregation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 488-493, May.
    11. Maarten van Ham & William A V Clark, 2009. "Neighbourhood Mobility in Context: Household Moves and Changing Neighbourhoods in the Netherlands," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 41(6), pages 1442-1459, June.
    12. Peteke Feijten & Maarten van Ham, 2009. "Neighbourhood Change... Reason to Leave?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 46(10), pages 2103-2122, September.
    13. Tiit Tammaru & Maarten Ham, 2016. "New Perspectives on Ethnic Segregation over Time and Space: A Domains Approach," Working Papers id:9352, eSocialSciences.
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    Cited by:

    1. Roy Cerqueti & Luca De Benedictis & Valerio Leone Sciabolazza, 2020. "Segregation with Social Linkages: Evaluating Schelling's Model with Networked Individuals," Papers 2001.02959, arXiv.org.
    2. de Vuijst, Elise & van Ham, Maarten, 2017. "Educational Attainment and Neighbourhood Outcomes: Differences between Highly-Educated Natives and Non-Western Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands," IZA Discussion Papers 10999, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Clémentine Cottineau & Olivier Finance & Erez Hatna & Elsa Arcaute & Michael Batty, 2019. "Defining urban clusters to detect agglomeration economies," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 46(9), pages 1611-1626, November.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    socio-economic segregation; neighbourhood change; cities; Europe; residential mobility; social mobility; intergenerational mobility;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • D64 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Altruism; Philanthropy; Intergenerational Transfers
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
    • P36 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
    • P46 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems - - - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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