IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Ethnic Segregation and Native Out-Migration in Copenhagen


  • Stonawski, Marcin Jan
  • Rogne, Adrian F.
  • Bang, Henrik
  • Christensen, Henning
  • Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde


We study how the local concentration of ethnic minorities relates to natives’ likelihood of out- migration in the capital of Denmark. In US studies, a high or increasing proportion of racial or ethnic minorities in inner city neighborhoods is seen as the prime motivation for ‘white flight;’ White middle-class families moving towards racially and ethnically homogeneous suburbs. The relatively egalitarian Scandinavian setting offers a contrasting case, where inner cities are less deprived, and where minority groups primarily consist of immigrants and children of immigrants that have arrived over the past few decades. Using rich, population-wide, longitudinal administrative data over a twelve-year period, linked to exact coordinates on places of residence, we document how the geographical distribution of minorities within Copenhagen relates to native out-migration. We observe increasing out-migration among the native majority population from areas with high and increasing minority concentrations, largely supporting the hypothesis of a ‘native flight’ mobility pattern.

Suggested Citation

  • Stonawski, Marcin Jan & Rogne, Adrian F. & Bang, Henrik & Christensen, Henning & Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde, 2019. "Ethnic Segregation and Native Out-Migration in Copenhagen," SocArXiv tx7b6, Center for Open Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:osf:socarx:tx7b6
    DOI: 10.31219/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Per-Anders Edin & Peter Fredriksson & Olof Åslund, 2003. "Ethnic Enclaves and the Economic Success of Immigrants—Evidence from a Natural Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(1), pages 329-357.
    2. Barth, Erling & Bratsberg, Bernt & Raaum, Oddbjørn, 2003. "Local Unemployment and the Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants in Norway," Memorandum 19/2002, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    3. Maarten van Ham & Peteke Feijten, 2008. "Who Wants to Leave the Neighbourhood? The Effect of Being Different from the Neighbourhood Population on Wishes to Move," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 40(5), pages 1151-1170, May.
    4. Gideon Bolt & Ronald van Kempen & Maarten van Ham, 2008. "Minority Ethnic Groups in the Dutch Housing Market: Spatial Segregation, Relocation Dynamics and Housing Policy," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 45(7), pages 1359-1384, June.
    5. Betts, Julian R. & Fairlie, Robert W., 2001. "Explaining Ethnic, Racial, and Immigrant Differences in Private School Attendance," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 26-51, July.
    6. Taryn Ann Galloway & Rolf Aaberge, 2005. "Assimilation effects on poverty among immigrants in Norway," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 691-718, November.
    7. Terje Wessel & Viggo Nordvik, 2019. "Mixed neighbourhoods and native out-mobility in the Oslo region: The importance of parenthood," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 56(5), pages 885-905, April.
    8. George J. Borjas, 2021. "Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Foundational Essays in Immigration Economics, chapter 10, pages 275-312, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    9. Hans Kristensen, 2002. "Social Housing Policy and the Welfare State: A Danish Perspective," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 39(2), pages 255-263, February.
    10. Anna Piil Damm & Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen, 2008. "The Construction of Neighbourhoods and its Relevance for the Measurement of Social and Ethnic Segregation: Evidence from Denmark," RF Berlin - CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0810, Rockwool Foundation Berlin (RF Berlin) - Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM).
    11. William H. Frey, 1995. "Immigration and Internal Migration 'Flight' from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 32(4-5), pages 733-757, May.
    12. Maria Krysan, 2002. "Whites who say they’d flee: Who are they, and why would they leave?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 39(4), pages 675-696, November.
    13. Jeremy Pais & Scott South & Kyle Crowder, 2009. "White Flight Revisited: A Multiethnic Perspective on Neighborhood Out-Migration," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 28(3), pages 321-346, June.
    14. William AV Clark & Rory Coulter, 2015. "Who wants to move? The role of neighbourhood change," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 47(12), pages 2683-2709, December.
    15. Pål Longva & Oddbjørn Raaum, 2003. "Earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway – A reappraisal," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 16(1), pages 177-193, February.
    16. Hans Skifter Andersen, 2017. "Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?," Housing Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(3), pages 296-318, April.
    17. Randall Filer, 1992. "The Effect of Immigrant Arrivals on Migratory Patterns of Native Workers," NBER Chapters, in: Immigration and the Work Force: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas, pages 245-270, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Lina Aldén & Mats Hammarstedt & Emma Neuman, 2015. "Ethnic Segregation, Tipping Behavior, and Native Residential Mobility," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(1), pages 36-69, March.
    19. Matthew Hall & Kyle Crowder, 2014. "Native Out-Migration and Neighborhood Immigration in New Destinations," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(6), pages 2179-2202, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zwiers, Merle & van Ham, Maarten & Manley, David, 2016. "Trajectories of Neighborhood Change: Spatial Patterns of Increasing Ethnic Diversity," IZA Discussion Papers 10216, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Yigit Aydede, 2017. "Immigration and location choices of native-born workers in Canada," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96, pages 113-134, March.
    3. Leah Platt Boustan & Price V. Fishback & Shawn Kantor, 2010. "The Effect of Internal Migration on Local Labor Markets:American Cities during the Great Depression," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(4), pages 719-746, October.
    4. Christian Dustmann & Albrecht Glitz & Tommaso Frattini, 2008. "The labour market impact of immigration," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press and Oxford Review of Economic Policy Limited, vol. 24(3), pages 478-495, Autumn.
    5. Efendic, Nedim & Andersson, Fredrik W. & Wennberg, Karl, 2015. "Growth in first- and second-generation immigrant firms in Sweden," Ratio Working Papers 265, The Ratio Institute.
    6. Tal Modai-Snir & Pnina O. Plaut, 2021. "Immigrants’ spatial integration dynamics in Tel-Aviv: An analysis of residential mobility and sorting," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 58(4), pages 845-862, March.
    7. Uddfeldt, Arvid, 2021. "The economic effect of the 2015 Refugee Crisis in Sweden: Jobs, Crimes, Prices and Voter turnout," SocArXiv 7yrxq, Center for Open Science.
    8. Matt Vogel & Merle Zwiers, 2018. "The Consequences of Spatial Inequality for Adolescent Residential Mobility," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 7(9), pages 1-15, September.
    9. Boschman, Sanne & Kleinhans, Reinout & van Ham, Maarten, 2014. "Ethnic Differences in Realising Desires to Leave the Neighbourhood," IZA Discussion Papers 8461, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Catalina Amuedo‐Dorantes & Sara De La Rica, 2007. "Labour Market Assimilation of Recent Immigrants in Spain," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 257-284, June.
    11. Ad Coenen & Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe & Bart Van de Putte, 2019. "Ethnic Residential Segregation: A Family Matter? An Integration of Household Composition Characteristics into the Residential Segregation Literature," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 35(5), pages 1023-1052, December.
    12. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. & Sinning, Mathias G., 2011. "Neighborhood diversity and the appreciation of native- and immigrant-owned homes," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 214-226, May.
    13. Xiangbo Liu & Theodore Palivos & Xiaomeng Zhang, 2017. "Immigration, Skill Heterogeneity, And Qualification Mismatch," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 55(3), pages 1231-1264, July.
    14. William A. V. Clark & Philip S. Morrison, 2012. "Socio-spatial Mobility and Residential Sorting: Evidence from a Large-scale Survey," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 49(15), pages 3253-3270, November.
    15. Andersson, Henrik & Berg, Heléne & Dahlberg, Matz, 2021. "Migrating natives and foreign immigration: Is there a preference for ethnic residential homogeneity?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    16. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, "undated". "Does Immigration Hurt African-American Self-Employment?," IPR working papers 97-1, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
    17. Matthew Hall, 2013. "Residential Integration on the New Frontier: Immigrant Segregation in Established and New Destinations," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(5), pages 1873-1896, October.
    18. Giulietti, Corrado, 2009. "Immigration and displacement across local labour markets," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 0917, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    19. Sukkoo Kim, 2007. "Immigration, Industrial Revolution and Urban Growth in the United States, 1820-1920: Factor Endowments, Technology and Geography," NBER Working Papers 12900, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Timothy Hatton & Andrew Leigh, 2011. "Immigrants assimilate as communities, not just as individuals," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(2), pages 389-419, April.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:osf:socarx:tx7b6. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: OSF (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.