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Spousal Tax Deduction, Social Security System and the Labor Supply of Japanese Married Women

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Abstract

This paper evaluates one of the most drastic reforms of the Japanese public health insurance started in year 2006, by numerically examining the reform in an aging Japan in a dynamic context with overlapping generations within a computable general equilibrium framework. Our simulation results are as follows. First of all, an increase in the co-payment rate, which is one of the most prominent changes in the reform, would result in higher economic growth as well as higher welfare since it stimulates private savings. Secondly, an increasing trend of the future national medical expenditure can mainly be explained by an aging population, and an increase in the co-payment rate has little effect to squeeze the national medical expenditure in the future. Thirdly, the effect of a decrease in the national medical expenditure, which can possibly be induced by the improvement in efficiency in the public provision of medical services, the promotion of preventative medical services, or technological progress in the medical field, on the future burdens of medical expenditures is very small. Finally, if the government implements a policy to keep the ratio of the national medical expenditure to GDP constant, then the government has to keep reducing the national medical expenditure over time, and the reduction rate should be 45 percent in year 2050. Such a policy also eventuates in lower economic growth until around year 2035. Our simulation results thus indicate that the reform is not so effective to reduce the future national medical expenditure, but it can achieve higher economic growth by stimulating private savings.

Suggested Citation

  • Toshihiro Ihori & Ryuta Ray Kato & Masumi Kawade & Shun-ichiro Bessho, 2009. "Spousal Tax Deduction, Social Security System and the Labor Supply of Japanese Married Women," Working Papers EMS_2009_15, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
  • Handle: RePEc:iuj:wpaper:ems_2009_15
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    File URL: http://www.iuj.ac.jp/workingpapers/index.cfm?File=EMS_2009_15.pdf
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    1. Toshihiro Ihori & Ryuta Ray Kato & Masumi Kawade & Shun-ichiro Bessho, 2005. "Public Debt and Economic Growth in an Aging Japan," CARF F-Series CARF-F-046, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
    2. Kuroda, Sachiko & Yamamoto, Isamu, 2008. "Estimating Frisch labor supply elasticity in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 566-585, December.
    3. Hideo Akabayashi, 2006. "The labor supply of married women and spousal tax deductions in Japan—a structural estimation," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 349-378, December.
    4. M. Anne Hill, 1989. "Female Labor Supply in Japan: Implications of the Informal Sector for Labor Force Participation and Hours of Work," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(1), pages 143-161.
    5. Benjamin M. Friedman & Mark Warshawsky, 1985. "Annuity Prices and Saving Behavior in the United States," NBER Working Papers 1683, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. James H. Stock & Motohiro Yogo, 2002. "Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression," NBER Technical Working Papers 0284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Uwe E. Reinhardt, 2000. "Health Care for the Aging Baby Boom: Lessons from Abroad," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 71-83, Spring.
    8. Masaru Sasaki, 2002. "The Causal Effect of Family Structure on Labor Force Participation among Japanese Married Women," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 37(2), pages 429-440.
    9. Horioka, Charles Yuji & Watanabe, Wako, 1997. "Why Do People Save? A Micro-Analysis of Motives for Household Saving in Japan," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(442), pages 537-552, May.
    10. Ken Yamada, 2008. "Estimating labour supply and time allocation by married Japanese men and unmarried Japanese women," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(9), pages 659-666.
    11. Benjamin M. Friedman & Mark Warshawsky, 1988. "Annuity Prices and Saving Behavior in the United States," NBER Chapters,in: Pensions in the U.S. Economy, pages 53-84 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. YOKOYAMA, Izumi, 2015. "The Impact of Tax Reform in Japan on the Work-Hour and Income Distributions of Married Women," Discussion Papers 2015-02, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Health Insurance; Japan; National medical expenditure; Economic growth; Aging population;

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • E17 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

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