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Desafios da Real Política Industrial Brasileira do Século XXI


  • Mansueto Almeida


Este trabalho debate alguns dilemas da atual política industrial brasileira. Primeiro, explica-se o debate atual sobre a política industrial, destacando-se os dilemas envolvidos na implementação de uma política de fomento em setores intensivos em tecnologia de uma economia diversificada, cuja indústria é liderada por setores de baixa e média-baixa tecnologia. Segundo, aborda-se a questão de que mesmo a defesa da política industrial estando baseada no fomento à inovação para todos os setores, o governo brasileiro continua promovendo setores específicos e firmas individuais, tal qual foi feito no período de substituição de importações. Apesar disso, raramente o governo reconhece esta política industrial real, na qual o discurso oficial pró-inovação é complementado por políticas tradicionais de escolherem-se vencedores. Terceiro, mostra-se que a política industrial no Brasil, quando necessário, discrimina o investimento externo em alguns setores para construir firmas nacionais líderes. Por fim, constata-se que a política industrial do Brasil ainda ocorre em um ambiente no qual os capitalistas preferem se relacionar com o governo por canais de comunicação direto e individuais, sem a intermediação das associações empresariais. This paper debates some dilemmas involved in today`s Brazilian industrial policy. First, I will explain the current industrial policy debate in Brazil, stressing the dilemmas involved in supporting the development of technology-intensive sectors in a highly diversified economy led by low and medium-low technology intensive sectors. Second, despite the current discourse to foster innovation across the sectors, Brazilian government continues to promote specific sectors and firms as it did back in the import substitution period. In spite of that, seldom does the government recognize this "real industrial policy", in which the official discourse pro innovation goes hand in hand with traditional industrial policies of picking up the winners. Third, I show that the real industrial policy in Brazil, when necessary, tends to discriminate against foreign-owned firms in some sectors to build national large firms. And last, I argue that today`s industrial policy in Brazil still occurs in an environment in which capitalists prefer to invest in their private access to state actors instead of investing in collective action through business associations.

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  • Mansueto Almeida, 2009. "Desafios da Real Política Industrial Brasileira do Século XXI," Discussion Papers 1452, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1452

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dosi, Giovanni, 1988. "Institutions and Markets in a Dynamic World," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 56(2), pages 119-146, June.
    2. Primi, Annalisa & Peres Núñez, Wilson, 2009. "Theory and practice of industrial policy: evidence from the Latin American experience," Desarrollo Productivo 187, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
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    Cited by:

    1. Menezes, Jose H. V., 2010. "The political economy of innovation; an institutional analysis of industrial policy and development in Brazil," MPRA Paper 28849, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Lazzarini, Sergio G. & Musacchio, Aldo & Bandeira-de-Mello, Rodrigo & Marcon, Rosilene, 2015. "What Do State-Owned Development Banks Do? Evidence from BNDES, 2002–09," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 237-253.

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