IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/imf/imfwpa/2015-022.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Identifying Constraints to Financial Inclusion and Their Impact on GDP and Inequality: A Structural Framework for Policy

Author

Listed:
  • Robert M. Townsend
  • Ms. Filiz D Unsal
  • Yan Ji
  • Ms. Era Dabla-Norris

Abstract

We develop a micro-founded general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to identify pertinent constraints to financial inclusion. We evaluate quantitatively the policy impacts of relaxing each of these constraints separately, and in combination, on GDP and inequality. We focus on three dimensions of financial inclusion: access (determined by the size of participation costs), depth (determined by the size of collateral constraints resulting from limited commitment), and intermediation efficiency (determined by the size of interest rate spreads and default possibilities due to costly monitoring). We take the model to a firm-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Survey for six countries at varying degrees of economic development—three low-income countries (Uganda, Kenya, Mozambique), and three emerging market countries (Malaysia, the Philippines, and Egypt). The results suggest that alleviating different financial frictions have a differential impact across countries, with country-specific characteristics playing a central role in determining the linkages and tradeoffs between inclusion, GDP, inequality, and the distribution of gains and losses.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert M. Townsend & Ms. Filiz D Unsal & Yan Ji & Ms. Era Dabla-Norris, 2015. "Identifying Constraints to Financial Inclusion and Their Impact on GDP and Inequality: A Structural Framework for Policy," IMF Working Papers 2015/022, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2015/022
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=42649
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gine, Xavier & Townsend, Robert M., 2004. "Evaluation of financial liberalization: a general equilibrium model with constrained occupation choice," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 269-307, August.
    2. D'Erasmo, Pablo N. & Moscoso Boedo, Hernan J., 2012. "Financial structure, informality and development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 286-302.
    3. Francisco J. Buera & Yongseok Shin, 2013. "Financial Frictions and the Persistence of History: A Quantitative Exploration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 121(2), pages 221-272.
    4. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez & Cheng Wang, 2010. "Financing Development: The Role of Information Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(4), pages 1875-1891, September.
    5. Martin, Alberto & Taddei, Filippo, 2013. "International capital flows and credit market imperfections: A tale of two frictions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 441-452.
    6. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan Sanchez & Cheng Wang, 2013. "Quantifying the Impact of Financial Development on Economic Development," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(1), pages 194-215, January.
    7. Harold L. Cole & Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez, 2016. "Why Doesn't Technology Flow From Rich to Poor Countries?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84(4), pages 1477-1521, July.
    8. Rui Castro & Gian Luca Clementi & Glenn Macdonald, 2009. "Legal Institutions, Sectoral Heterogeneity, and Economic Development," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(2), pages 529-561.
    9. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
    10. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
    11. Doepke, Matthias & Townsend, Robert M., 2006. "Dynamic mechanism design with hidden income and hidden actions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 235-285, January.
    12. Okuda, Hidenobu & Mieno, Fumiharu, 1999. "What Happened to Thai Commercial Banks in the Pre-Asian Crisis Period: Microeconomic Analysis of Thai Banking Industry," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 40(2), pages 97-121, December.
    13. Benjamin Moll, 2014. "Productivity Losses from Financial Frictions: Can Self-Financing Undo Capital Misallocation?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(10), pages 3186-3221, October.
    14. Pedro S. Amaral & Erwan Quintin, 2010. "Limited Enforcement, Financial Intermediation, And Economic Development: A Quantitative Assessment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 51(3), pages 785-811, August.
    15. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Newman, Andrew F, 1993. "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(2), pages 274-298, April.
    16. Chang-Tai Hsieh & Peter J. Klenow, 2009. "Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in China and India," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 124(4), pages 1403-1448.
    17. Andreoni, James, 1989. "Giving with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(6), pages 1447-1458, December.
    18. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç‐Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2005. "Financial and Legal Constraints to Growth: Does Firm Size Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 137-177, February.
    19. Huggett, Mark, 1996. "Wealth distribution in life-cycle economies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 469-494, December.
    20. Árpád Ábrahám & Nicola Pavoni, 2005. "The Efficient Allocation of Consumption under Moral Hazard and Hidden Access to the Credit Market," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 370-381, 04/05.
    21. Hyeok Jeong & Robert Townsend, 2007. "Sources of TFP growth: occupational choice and financial deepening," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 32(1), pages 179-221, July.
    22. Virgiliu Midrigan & Daniel Yi Xu, 2014. "Finance and Misallocation: Evidence from Plant-Level Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 422-458, February.
    23. Ana Castaneda & Javier Diaz-Gimenez & Jose-Victor Rios-Rull, 2003. "Accounting for the U.S. Earnings and Wealth Inequality," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(4), pages 818-857, August.
    24. Robin Burgess & Rohini Pande, 2005. "Do Rural Banks Matter? Evidence from the Indian Social Banking Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 780-795, June.
    25. Jeong, Hyeok & Townsend, Robert M., 2008. "Growth And Inequality: Model Evaluation Based On An Estimation-Calibration Strategy," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(S2), pages 231-284, September.
    26. Francisco J. Buera & Joseph P. Kaboski & Yongseok Shin, 2011. "Finance and Development: A Tale of Two Sectors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(5), pages 1964-2002, August.
    27. Anna L. Paulson & Robert M. Townsend & Alexander Karaivanov, 2006. "Distinguishing Limited Liability from Moral Hazard in a Model of Entrepreneurship," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(1), pages 100-144, February.
    28. Benjamin Moll & Robert M. Townsend & Victor Zhorin, 2013. "Economic Development, Flow of Funds and the Equilibrium Interaction of Financial Frictions," NBER Working Papers 19618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    29. James B. Davies, 1982. "The Relative Impact of Inheritance and Other Factors on Economic Inequality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 97(3), pages 471-498.
    30. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2007. "Finance, inequality and the poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 27-49, March.
    31. Meghana Ayyagari & Asli Demirgüc-Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2008. "How Well Do Institutional Theories Explain Firms' Perceptions of Property Rights?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 1833-1871, July.
    32. Georg R. G. Clarke & Lixin Colin Xu & Heng-fu Zou, 2006. "Finance and Income Inequality: What Do the Data Tell Us?," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 72(3), pages 578-596, January.
    33. Townsend, Robert M., 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 265-293, October.
    34. Alexander Karaivanov & Robert M. Townsend, 2014. "Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design From Exogenously Incomplete Regimes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(3), pages 887-959, May.
    35. World Bank, 2014. "Global Financial Development Report 2014 : Financial Inclusion," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 16238, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Khurram Shehzad & Umer Zaman & Ana Ercília José & Emrah Koçak & Paulo Ferreira, 2021. "An Officious Impact of Financial Innovations and ICT on Economic Evolution in China: Revealing the Substantial Role of BRI," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(16), pages 1-17, August.
    2. Emara, Noha & El Said, Ayah & Pearlman, Joseph, 2019. "On the Impact of Financial Inclusion on Financial Stability and Inequality: The Role of Macroprudential Policies," MPRA Paper 99258, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Turvey, C. G., 2017. "IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 10 - Inclusive finance and inclusive rural transformation," IFAD Research Series 280048, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
    4. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez & Cheng Wang, 2010. "Financing Development: The Role of Information Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(4), pages 1875-1891, September.
    5. International Monetary Fund, 2016. "Côte d’Ivoire: Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 2016/148, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Marc Auboin & Alisa DiCaprio, 2017. "Why Do Trade Finance Gaps Persist: Does it Matter for Trade and Development?," CESifo Working Paper Series 6425, CESifo.
    7. Nizam, Rosmah & Karim, Zulkefly Abdul & Sarmidi, Tamat & Rahman, Aisyah Abdul, 2021. "Financial Inclusion And Firm Growth In Asean-5 Countries: A New Evidence Using Threshold Regression," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    8. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan Sanchez & Cheng Wang, 2013. "Quantifying the Impact of Financial Development on Economic Development," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(1), pages 194-215, January.
    9. Joyce Wong & Chuan Li, 2018. "Financial Development and Inclusion in the Caribbean," IMF Working Papers 2018/053, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Granda, Catalina & Hamann, Franz & Tamayo, Cesar E., 2019. "Credit and saving constraints in general equilibrium: A quantitative exploration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 140(C), pages 302-319.
    11. Ayoki, Milton, 2009. "Promoting Financial Inclusion in Africa: The Two Ambiguities," MPRA Paper 82882, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Dec 2016.
    12. Auboin, Marc & DiCaprio, Alisa, 2016. "Why do trade finance gaps persist: Does it matter for trade and development?," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2017-01, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    13. Massomeh Hajilee & Farhang Niroomand, 2018. "The impact of interest rate volatility on financial market inclusion: evidence from emerging markets," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 42(2), pages 352-368, April.
    14. Lyons, Angela C. & Grable, John E. & Joo, So-Hyun, 2018. "A cross-country analysis of population aging and financial security," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 12(C), pages 96-117.
    15. Bashar Abu Khalaf & Hadeel Yaseen & Ghassan Omet, 2015. "The Evolution of Bank Competition: Have Conditions Changed in the Jordanian Banking Sector?," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 5(8), pages 286-296, August.
    16. Jing Zhang, 2020. "A Theoretical Framework of Financial Inclusion on Poverty Alleviation," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 10(5), pages 1-1.
    17. Hajilee, Massomeh & Stringer, Donna Y. & Metghalchi, Massoud, 2017. "Financial market inclusion, shadow economy and economic growth: New evidence from emerging economies," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 149-158.
    18. Ghosh, Saibal & Vinod, D., 2017. "What Constrains Financial Inclusion for Women? Evidence from Indian Micro data," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 60-81.
    19. Claessens, Stijn, 2017. "Regulation and structural change in financial systems," CEPR Discussion Papers 11822, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Bashar Abu Khalaf & Hadeel Yaseen & Ghassan Omet, 2015. "The Evolution of Bank Competition: Have Conditions Changed in the Jordanian Banking Sector?," International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 5(3), pages 100-107, July.
    21. Ali Compaore, 2020. "Access-for-all to Financial Services: Non- resources Tax Revenue-harnessing Opportunities in Developing Countries," Working Papers hal-02901664, HAL.
    22. Kabakova, Oksana & Plaksenkov, Evgeny, 2018. "Analysis of factors affecting financial inclusion: Ecosystem view," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 198-205.
    23. International Monetary Fund, 2016. "El Salvador: Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 2016/209, International Monetary Fund.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Era Dabla-Norris & Yan Ji & Robert M. Townsend & D. Filiz Unsal, 2015. "Distinguishing Constraints on Financial Inclusion and Their Impact on GDP, TFP, and the Distribution of Income," NBER Working Papers 20821, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Dabla-Norris, Era & Ji, Yan & Townsend, Robert M. & Filiz Unsal, D., 2021. "Distinguishing constraints on financial inclusion and their impact on GDP, TFP, and the distribution of income," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 1-18.
    3. Ek, Chanbora & Wu, Guiying Laura, 2018. "Investment-cash flow sensitivities and capital misallocation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 220-230.
    4. Wu, Guiying Laura, 2018. "Capital misallocation in China: Financial frictions or policy distortions?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 203-223.
    5. Dabla-Norris, Era & Ji, Yan & Townsend, Robert M & Unsal, Derya Filiz, 2017. "Distinguishing Constraints on Financial Inclusion and Their Impact on GDP and Inequality," CEPR Discussion Papers 11742, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Benjamin Moll & Robert M. Townsend & Victor Zhorin, 2013. "Economic Development, Flow of Funds and the Equilibrium Interaction of Financial Frictions," NBER Working Papers 19618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Alvaro Aguirre, 2017. "Contracting Institutions and Economic Growth," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 24, pages 192-217, March.
    8. Francisco J. Buera & Joseph P. Kaboski & Yongseok Shin, 2011. "Finance and Development: A Tale of Two Sectors," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(5), pages 1964-2002, August.
    9. Qiusha Peng, 2019. "Financial Frictions, Entry and Growth: A Study of China," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 34, pages 267-282, October.
    10. Diego Restuccia & Richard Rogerson, 2013. "Misallocation and productivity," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(1), pages 1-10, January.
    11. Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2009. "Finance and Inequality: Theory and Evidence," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 287-318, November.
    12. Allub, Lian & Erosa, Andrés, 2019. "Financial frictions, occupational choice and economic inequality," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 63-76.
    13. Lopez-Martin, Bernabe & Perez-Reyna, David, 2021. "Contracts, firm dynamics, and aggregate productivity," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    14. Pavel Sevcik & Rui Castro, 2013. "Occupational Choice, Human Capital, and Financing Constraints," 2013 Meeting Papers 1321, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    15. Neira, Julian, 2019. "Bankruptcy and cross-country differences in productivity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 359-381.
    16. Bah, El-hadj & Fang, Lei, 2015. "Impact of the business environment on output and productivity in Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 159-171.
    17. Ranasinghe, Ashantha & Restuccia, Diego, 2018. "Financial frictions and the rule of law," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 248-271.
    18. Hill, Enoch & Perez-Reyna, David, 2017. "Financial development and occupational choice," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 54(PB), pages 393-409.
    19. Harold L. Cole & Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez, 2016. "Why Doesn't Technology Flow From Rich to Poor Countries?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 84(4), pages 1477-1521, July.
    20. Ranasinghe, Ashantha, 2017. "Property rights, extortion and the misallocation of talent," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 86-110.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2015/022. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/imfffus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Akshay Modi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/imfffus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.