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Estimates of Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rates, November 2015

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  • William R. Cline

    () (Peterson Institute for International Economics)

Abstract

The latest semiannual fundamental equilibrium exchange rate (FEER) estimates find that the US dollar is now overvalued by about 10 percent, comparable to levels in 2008 through early 2010 and again in 2011. Unlike then, the current strong dollar does not reflect a weak renminbi kept undervalued by major exchange rate intervention by China. Instead, China's current account surplus has fallen sharply relative to GDP, and its recent intervention has been to prevent excessive depreciation rather than to prevent appreciation. Additionally, declines in the real effective exchange rates (REERs) for major emerging-market economies and resource-based advanced economies, driven by falling commodity prices in recent months, have strengthened the dollar. Recent increases in the REERs for the euro area and Japan have removed their modest undervaluation identified in the last FEERs estimates in May, and the Chinese renminbi remains consistent with its FEER. The dollar's rise by nearly 15 percent in real effective terms over the past two years could impose a drag of nearly one-half percent annually on US demand growth over the next five years. As the Federal Reserve moves to normalize US monetary policy, it may need to consider a gentler rise in interest rates than it might otherwise have pursued, both to temper possible further strengthening of the dollar in response to higher interest rates and to help offset the demand compression from falling net exports.

Suggested Citation

  • William R. Cline, 2015. "Estimates of Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rates, November 2015," Policy Briefs PB15-20, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:iie:pbrief:pb15-20
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    1. William R. Cline, 2008. "Estimating Consistent Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rates," Working Paper Series WP08-6, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yin†Wong Cheung & Menzie Chinn & Xin Nong, 2017. "Estimating currency misalignment using the Penn effect: It is not as simple as it looks," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 222-242, December.
    2. Yin-Wong Cheung & Cho-Hoi Hui & Andrew Tsang, 2016. "The Renminbi Central Parity: An Empirical Investigation," Working Papers 102016, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    3. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Hui, Cho-Hoi & Tsang, Andrew, 2018. "The RMB central parity formation mechanism: August 2015 to December 2016," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 223-243.
    4. Jan Priewe, 2016. "The enigmatic dollar-euro exchange rate and the world's biggest forex market - performance, causes, consequences," IMK Studies 49-2016, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    5. Frankel, Jeffrey, 2015. "The Plaza Accord, 30 Years Later," Working Paper Series 15-056, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    6. Renhong Wu, 2016. "A New Method of Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate in Developing Countries," International Journal of Economics and Finance, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 8(3), pages 171-177, March.
    7. Coppola,Andrea & Lagerborg,Andresa & Mustafaoglu,Zafer, 2016. "Estimating an equilibrium exchange rate for the Argentine Peso," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7682, The World Bank.

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