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Estimating the Effect of Elite Communications on Public Opinion Using Instrumental Variables

Listed author(s):
  • Matthew Gabel

    (Department of Political Science, University of Kentucky)

  • Kenneth Scheve

    (Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan)

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    A central question in the study of democratic polities is the extent to which elite opinion about public policy shapes and potentially manipulates public opinion on those issues. Existing empirical estimates of the effect of elite communication on individual opinion formation are, however, characterized by a number of serious methodological problems, and consequently, there is little in the way of compelling evidence that elites actually influence individual opinions. This paper proposes an identification strategy for estimating the causal effect of elite messages on public support for European integration employing instrumental variable estimation. The paper presents three main empirical results. First, we find that more negative elite messages about European integration do indeed decrease public support for Europe. Our analysis suggests that OLS estimates that ignore the endogeneity, omitted variables, and measurement problems that typically occur in estimating the effects of elite communication are biased, underestimating the magnitude of the effect of elite messages by fifty percent. Second, we find no evidence that this effect of elite messages varies for more politically aware individuals. Third, our estimates are inconsistent with a mainstreaming effect in which political awareness increases support for Europe in those political settings in which elites have a favorable consensus on the benefits of integration. This result is in sharp contrast to the OLS analysis that incorrectly suggests a mainstreaming effect.

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    Paper provided by University of Kentucky, Institute for Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations in its series Working Papers with number 2005-02.

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    Length: 44 pages
    Date of creation: Aug 2005
    Handle: RePEc:ifr:wpaper:2005-02
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    1. Alesina, Alberto & Devleeschauwer, Arnaud & Easterly, William & Kurlat, Sergio & Wacziarg, Romain, 2003. "Fractionalization," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 155-194, June.
    2. Evans, Geoffrey, 1998. "Euroscepticism and Conservative Electoral Support: How an Asset Became a Liability," British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(04), pages 573-590, October.
    3. repec:cup:apsrev:v:87:y:1993:i:04:p:963-975_10 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Mark N. Franklin & Christopher Wlezien, 1997. "The Responsive Public," Journal of Theoretical Politics, , vol. 9(3), pages 347-363, July.
    5. repec:cup:apsrev:v:95:y:2001:i:03:p:619-631_00 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Leonard Ray, 2003. "Reconsidering the Link between Incumbent Support and Pro-EU Opinion," European Union Politics, , vol. 4(3), pages 259-279, September.
    7. repec:cup:apsrev:v:87:y:1993:i:02:p:267-285_09 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Jochen Peter & Holli A. Semetko & Claes H. de Vreese, 2003. "EU Politics on Television News," European Union Politics, , vol. 4(3), pages 305-327, September.
    9. repec:cup:apsrev:v:87:y:1993:i:03:p:639-656_10 is not listed on IDEAS
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