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Changing wage structure and education in Vietnam 1993-1998: The roles of demand

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  • Amy Y.C. Liu

Abstract

This paper examines the changes in relative earnings of workers with different education levels during Vietnam’s transition. It is found that females enjoy a higher return to education than males do in 1998, reversing the situation observed five years ago. A large fall in the returns to vocational training for males, amid the rapid growth in the representation of better-educated females in the private sector where education is valued higher could be responsible for what have occurred. A direct assessment of the role of demand using a simple demand and supply framework developed by Katz-Murphy (1992) is undertaken. The result suggests an increase in the relative demand for better-educated workers appears to play an important role in explaining the earnings differentials between workers of different education groups. Education reform to better suit the needs of the post-reform emerging market, on-the-job training for workers, as well as equal access to education are some policy options that hold thekey to reduce wage inequality between different education groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Amy Y.C. Liu, 2005. "Changing wage structure and education in Vietnam 1993-1998: The roles of demand," International and Development Economics Working Papers idec05-4, International and Development Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:idc:wpaper:idec05-4
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    File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/degrees/idec/working_papers/IDEC05-4.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Trostel, Philip & Walker, Ian & Woolley, Paul, 2002. "Estimates of the economic return to schooling for 28 countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-16, February.
    2. Psacharopoulos, George, 1994. "Returns to investment in education: A global update," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
    3. Xin Meng & Junsen Zhang & Pak-Wai Liu, 2000. "Sectoral gender wage differentials and discrimination in the transitional Chinese economy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 331-352.
    4. Moock, Peter R. & Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Venkataraman, Meera, 2003. "Education and earnings in a transition economy: the case of Vietnam," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 503-510, October.
    5. Liu, Zhiqiang, 1998. "Earnings, Education, and Economic Reforms in Urban China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 46(4), pages 697-725, July.
    6. Newell, Andrew T., 2001. "The Distribution of Wages in Transition Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 267, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Meng, Xin, 1998. "Male-female wage determination and gender wage discrimination in China's rural industrial sector," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 67-89, March.
    8. David O’Connor, 1996. "Labour Market Aspects of State Enterprise Reform in Viet Nam," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 117, OECD Publishing.
    9. Li, Haizheng, 2003. "Economic transition and returns to education in China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 317-328, June.
    10. Xin Meng, 2004. "Economic Restructuring and Income Inequality in Urban China," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 50(3), pages 357-379, September.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies

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