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Labour Market Aspects of State Enterprise Reform in Viet Nam

  • David O’Connor
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    State-owned enterprise (SOE) restructuring has proceeded more rapidly in Viet Nam than, for example, in China and India. The government tightened the budget constraints facing SOEs virtually simultaneously with price liberalisation. While a large number of mostly small SOEs were liquidated soon after reform began, others were able to adjust through various cost-cutting measures, including sizeable labour force reductions. The government put in place a safety net composed of severance pay and early retirement schemes that, combined with natural attrition, yielded a reduction in the SOE workforce of almost one million people in less than a decade. While the largely voluntary nature of the schemes may have caused some adverse selection and made them more costly than necessary, the benefit has been to avoid social discontent. High private-sector employment growth has been a major contributor to the programme’s success. Still, the process is not complete. Initial restructuring was ... La restructuration des entreprises publiques a été plus rapide au Viêt Nam que dans d’autres pays comme, par exemple, la Chine et l’Inde. Le gouvernement a resserré les contraintes budgétaires imposées aux entreprises publiques au moment où il procédait à une libéralisation des prix. Un nombre non négligeable de petites entreprises publiques ont été liquidées peu après le début des réformes, mais d’autres ont réussi à s’adapter en adoptant diverses mesures de réduction des coûts, dont des licenciements de grande ampleur. Le gouvernement a mis en place un filet de sécurité comprenant des indemnités de licenciement et des programmes de préretraite qui, en sus du jeu normal des départs, ont permis de réduire la main-d’œuvre employée dans les entreprises publiques de pratiquement 1 million de personnes en moins de dix ans. Les systèmes adoptés reposant largement sur le volontariat, ils ont sans doute provoqué des phénomènes d’antisélection et eu un coût plus élevé que nécessaire, mais ...

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    Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Development Centre Working Papers with number 117.

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    Date of creation: Sep 1996
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    Handle: RePEc:oec:devaaa:117-en
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