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Income Composition Endogenous Fertility and Schooling Investments in Children

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Abstract

This paper studies how the composition of income between mothers and fathers affects fertility and schooling investments in children, using data from the 1976 and 1996 PNAD, a Brazilian household survey. Income composition affects the time cost of fertility because mothers and fathers allocate different amounts of time to child-rearing. These effects are in turn transmitted to investments in children through a tradeoff between quantity and quality of children. The main contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it derives new implications about the relationship between household income composition and schooling investments in children. Second, this paper devises and implements an empirical approach to assess these implications, using two cross-sections of fertility and schooling data from Brazil. The main empirical findings of the paper can be summarized as follows. First, the empirical analysis shows that a larger negative effect of the mother's labor income on fertility in 1996 is associated with a larger positive effect on the adult child's schooling, reflecting the interaction between quantity and quality of children. Second, the larger negative effect of the mother's labor income on fertility in 1996 is associated with a reduction in the effect of other determinants of number of children. This suggests that an increase in the relative importance of time costs of fertility may be an important determinant of variations in fertility over time in Brazil and other developing countries.
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  • Veloso, F.A., 2000. "Income Composition Endogenous Fertility and Schooling Investments in Children," Insper Working Papers wpe_6, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
  • Handle: RePEc:ibm:ibmecp:wpe_6
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    Cited by:

    1. Fernando Veloso, 2000. "Wealth Composition, Endogenous Fertility and the Dynamics of Income Inequality," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1281, Econometric Society.

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