Earnings Mobility and Inequality: An Integrated Framework
In this paper we propose an integrated framework for the analysis of earnings inequality and mobility, which enables the analysis of the distributional dimension of inequality reduction from mobility, an assessment of the economic drivers of mobility and a sense of which drivers are equalising and dis-equalising. In particular we are able to capture the extent to which life-cycle characteristics, key life events, job related characteristics, and changes in working time affect overall mobility and inequality. The framework also offers a bounded approach to isolating the underlying inequality reduction resulting from mobility from measurement error which can otherwise lead to a substantial upward bias. Using data from the Australian HILDA survey we find evidence of a sizable degree of earnings mobility in Australia over the years 2001/2 to 2008/9. The raw inequality reduction resulting from economic mobility was 0.148 Gini points from an initial estimate of 0.368, however, the bounded range based on two alternative versions of two stage estimation lies between 0.072 and 0.102 or between ¼ and 1/3 of original inequality. We show how the inequality reduction from mobility is primarily driven in the bottom part of the initial distribution, with the upper tail being particularly prone to measurement issues. A sizeable part of the identified mobility is simply driven by age-earnings growth that sees more rapid wage increases for younger workers and wage progression among women in notably stronger in reducing inequality because they start lower in distribution. Yet this rather smooth picture of earnings rising with age is shown to be substantially driven by a series of less frequent step changes associated with job-to-job moves, promotions and taking on more responsibility. There are also shocks which run against this equalising process, most notably job loss, which has substantial negative effects on earnings and disproportionately falls on lower waged workers.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia|
Phone: +61 3 8344 2100
Fax: +61 3 8344 2111
Web page: http://melbourneinstitute.unimelb.edu.au/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Van Kerm, Philippe, 2009. "Income mobility profiles," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 93-95, February.
- Stephen P. Jenkins & Philippe Van Kerm, 2006.
"Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth, and income mobility,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 531-548, July.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2003. "Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility," IRISS Working Paper Series 2003-11, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
- Stephen P. Jenkins & Philippe VanKerm, 2003. "Trends in Income Inequality, Pro-Poor Income Growth and Income Mobility," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 377, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2003. "Trends in Income Inequality, Pro-Poor Income Growth and Income Mobility," IZA Discussion Papers 904, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2003. "Trends in income inequality, pro-poor income growth and income mobility," ISER Working Paper Series 2003-27, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Donaldson, David & Weymark, John A., 1980. "A single-parameter generalization of the Gini indices of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 67-86, February.
- Jacobson, Louis S & LaLonde, Robert J & Sullivan, Daniel G, 1993. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 685-709, September.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 92-11, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1992. "Earnings losses of displaced workers," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 92-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/1560 is not listed on IDEAS
- Fields, Gary S. & Ok, Efe A., 1996. "The Measurement of Income Mobility: An Introduction to the Literature," Working Papers 96-05, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2011. "Trends in individual income growth: measurement methods and British evidence," ISER Working Paper Series 2011-06, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Stephen P. Jenkins & Philippe van Kerm, 2011. "Trends in individual income growth: measurement Methods and British evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 58209, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- JENKINS Stephen P. & VAN KERM Philippe, 2011. "Trends in individual income growth: measurement methods and British evidence," LISER Working Paper Series 2011-21, LISER.
- Jenkins, Stephen P. & Van Kerm, Philippe, 2011. "Trends in Individual Income Growth: Measurement Methods and British Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 5510, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Andrew Leigh, 2009. "Permanent Income Inequality: Australia, Britain, Germany, and the United States Compared," CEPR Discussion Papers 628, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Stephen P. Jenkins & Philippe Van Kerm, 2009. "Decomposition of inequality change into pro-poor growth and mobility components: -dsginideco-," United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2009 11, Stata Users Group.
- Donaldson, David & Weymark, John A., 1983. "Ethically flexible gini indices for income distributions in the continuum," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 353-358, April.
- DONALDSON, David & WEYMARK, John A., "undated". "Ethically flexible Gini indices for income distributions in the continuum," CORE Discussion Papers RP 520, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Henry S. Farber, 1993. "The Incidence and Costs of Job Loss: 1982-1991," Working Papers 688, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Nicholas Rohde & Kam Ki Tang & Prasada Rao, 2010. "Income Inequality, Mobility And Economic Insecurity In Australia," Discussion Papers Series 407, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
- Amanda Gosling & Stephen Machin & Costas Meghir, 2000. "The Changing Distribution of Male Wages in the U.K," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(4), pages 635-666.
- Amanda Gosling & Stephen Machin & Costas Meghir, 1994. "The changing distribution of male wages in the UK," IFS Working Papers W94/13, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- A Gosling & Stephen Machin, 1995. "The Changing Distribution of Male Wages in the UK," CEP Discussion Papers dp0271, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Michael Keating, 2003. "The Labour Market and Inequality," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 36(4), pages 374-396.
- Manning, Alan, 2000. "Movin' on up: Interpreting the Earnings-Experience Profile," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(4), pages 261-295, October.
- Alan Manning, 1998. "Movin On Up: Interpreting the Earnings Experience Profile," CEP Discussion Papers dp0380, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Alan Manning, 1998. "Movin on up: interpreting the earnings experience profile," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20294, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Gary Fields & Paul Cichello & Samuel Freije & Marta Menéndez & David Newhouse, 2003. "For Richer or for Poorer? Evidence from Indonesia, South Africa, Spain, and Venezuela," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 1(1), pages 67-99, April.
- MaCurdy, Thomas E., 1982. "The use of time series processes to model the error structure of earnings in a longitudinal data analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 83-114, January.
- Zimmerman, David J, 1992. "Regression toward Mediocrity in Economic Stature," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 409-429, June.
- Abowd, John M & Card, David, 1989. "On the Covariance Structure of Earnings and Hours Changes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 411-445, March.
- John M. Abowd & David Card, 1986. "On the Covariance Structure of Earnings and Hours Changes," NBER Working Papers 1832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary Fields, 2010. "Does income mobility equalize longer-term incomes? New measures of an old concept," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 8(4), pages 409-427, December.
- Fields, Gary S & Ok, Efe A, 1999. "Measuring Movement of Incomes," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 66(264), pages 455-471, November.
- Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 2003. "Measuring pro-poor growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 93-99, January.
- Ravallion, Martin & Shaohua Chen, 2001. "Measuring pro-poor growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2666, The World Bank.
- Paul Gregg & Claudia Vittori, 2008. "Exploring Shorrocks Mobility Indices Using European Data," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 08/206, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Fields, Gary S. & Ok, Efe A., 1996. "The Meaning and Measurement of Income Mobility," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 349-377, November.
- George Athanasopoulos & Farshid Vahid, 2003. "Statistical Inference and Changes in Income Inequality in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(247), pages 412-424, December.
- George Athanasopoulos & Farshid Vahid, 2002. "Statistical Inference on Changes in Income Inequality in Australia," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 9/02, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
- Shorrocks, Anthony, 1978. "Income inequality and income mobility," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 376-393, December.
- Van Kerm, Philippe, 2002. "On the magnitude of income mobility in Germany," IRISS Working Paper Series 2002-03, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iae:iaewps:wp2012n26. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Abbey Treloar)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.