IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iab/iabdpa/200901.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The impact of federal social policies on spatial income inequalities in Germany : empirical evidence from social security data

Author

Listed:
  • Bruckmeier, Kerstin

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)

  • Schwengler, Barbara

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)

Abstract

"Almost twenty years after German reunification there are still huge income disparities between western and eastern regions in Germany. The main purpose of the paper is to show how social transfer payments reduce these inter-regional disparities. In a first step we examine inequalities in the distribution of gross income from dependent employment and self-employment at the small-area level of 439 NUTS-3 units. Our distributional analysis quantifies regional wage inequalities driven by economic disparities and different patterns of employment. A decomposition analysis reveals that large wage differentials exist not only between eastern and western Germany but also within western regions. Furthermore we estimate the income effects of the German unemployment and pension insurance using different sources of social security data at regional level. The results indicate large regional redistributive effects across areas: the share of social benefits and payments as a percentage of total net income ranges from 11 per cent to 41 per cent. Like other European states, Germany faces several problems concerning its welfare system. Recent reforms of the welfare system in 2004 and 2005 also affected some core principles of social security. Our results show that changing parameters of eligibility, claims and financing will influence the spatial income distribution. Hence further research on this topic is recommended when data for 2005 and later years are available." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))

Suggested Citation

  • Bruckmeier, Kerstin & Schwengler, Barbara, 2009. "The impact of federal social policies on spatial income inequalities in Germany : empirical evidence from social security data," IAB-Discussion Paper 200901, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  • Handle: RePEc:iab:iabdpa:200901
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doku.iab.de/discussionpapers/2009/dp0109.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Roberta Colavecchio & Declan Curran & Michael Funke, 2009. "Drifting together or falling apart? The empirics of regional economic growth in post-unification Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(9), pages 1087-1098.
    2. Rice, Patricia & Venables, Anthony J. & Patacchini, Eleonora, 2006. "Spatial determinants of productivity: Analysis for the regions of Great Britain," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 727-752, November.
    3. Jenkins, Stephen P, 1995. "Accounting for Inequality Trends: Decomposition Analyses for the UK, 1971-86," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 62(245), pages 29-63, February.
    4. Joachim Frick & Jan Goebel, 2008. "Regional Income Stratification in Unified Germany Using a Gini Decomposition Approach," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(4), pages 555-577.
    5. Uwe Blien & Franziska Hirschenauer, 2006. "Formula allocation: The regional allocation of budgetary funds for measures of active labour market policy in Germany," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 18(7), pages 1-10.
    6. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
    7. Reinhold Kosfeld & Hans-Friedrich Eckey & Jorgen Lauridsen, 2008. "Disparities in Prices and Income across German NUTS 3 Regions," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 54(2), pages 123-141.
    8. S. Brakman & H Garretsen & M. Schramm, 2003. "The Strategic Bombing of German Cities during World War II and its Impact for Germany," Working Papers 03-09, Utrecht School of Economics.
    9. Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-625, April.
    10. Johannes Schwarze, 1996. "How Income Inequality Changed In Germany Following Reunification: An Empirical Analysis Using Decomposable Inequality Measures," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(1), pages 1-11, March.
    11. Antonio Fatás, 1998. "Does EMU need a fiscal federation?," Economic Policy, CEPR, CESifo, Sciences Po;CES;MSH, vol. 13(26), pages 164-203.
    12. Heather Dickey, 2007. "Regional Earnings Inequality In Great Britain: Evidence From Quantile Regressions," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(4), pages 775-806, October.
    13. Martin Biewen, 2005. "The Covariance Structure of East and West German Incomes and its Implications for the Persistence of Poverty and Inequality," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 6(4), pages 445-469, November.
    14. Gernandt Johannes & Pfeiffer Friedhelm, 2007. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 227(4), pages 358-380, August.
    15. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:18:y:2006:i:7:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Heather Dickey, 2007. "Regional Earnings Inequality in Great Britain: Evidence from Fixed‐effects Regressions," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 21(4‐5), pages 763-787, December.
    17. Chris Jensen-Butler & Bjarne Madsen, 2005. "Decomposition Analysis: An Extended Theoretical Foundation and its Application to the Study of Regional Income Growth in Denmark," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 37(12), pages 2189-2208, December.
    18. Karl Brenke, 2006. "Zunehmende regionale Einkommensunterschiede in Deutschland, aber starke Ausgleichswirkungen durch Pendlereinkommen und Sozialtransfers," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(11), pages 141-150.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Rukwid, Ralf, 2007. "Arbeitslosigkeit und Lohnspreizung - Empirische Befunde zur Arbeitsmarktsituation gering Qualifizierter in Deutschland," Violette Reihe: Schriftenreihe des Promotionsschwerpunkts "Globalisierung und Beschäftigung" 24/2007, University of Hohenheim, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Evangelisches Studienwerk.
    2. Andreas Peichl & Nico Pestel & Hilmar Schneider, 2012. "Does Size Matter? The Impact Of Changes In Household Structure On Income Distribution In Germany," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(1), pages 118-141, March.
    3. Mathias Sommer, 2008. "Understanding the trends in income, consumption and wealth inequality and how important are life-cycle effects?," MEA discussion paper series 08160, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    4. Sommer, Mathias, 2008. "Understanding the trends in income, consumption and wealth inequality and how important are life-cycle effects?," Papers 08-12, Sonderforschungsbreich 504.
    5. Steve Gibbons & Henry G. Overman & Panu Pelkonen, 2010. "Wage Disparities in Britain: People or Place?," SERC Discussion Papers 0060, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    6. Zarth, Michael & Schnitzlein, Daniel D. & Bruckmeier, Kerstin, 2009. "Eine regionale Betrachtung der Sozialversicherung und raumwirksamer Bundesmittel: Wer partizipiert wie?," Forschungs- und Sitzungsberichte der ARL: Aufsätze, in: Mäding, Heinrich (ed.), Öffentliche Finanzströme und räumliche Entwicklung, volume 127, pages 105-134, ARL – Akademie für Raumentwicklung in der Leibniz-Gemeinschaft.
    7. Ilpo Suoniemi & Marja Riihelä & Risto Sullström, 2008. "Tax progressivity and recent evolution of the Finnish income inequality," Working Papers 246, Työn ja talouden tutkimus LABORE, The Labour Institute for Economic Research LABORE.
    8. Riihelä, Marja, 2009. "Essays on income inequality, poverty and the evolution of top income shares," Research Reports 52, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    9. Riihelä, Marja, 2009. "Essays on income inequality, poverty and the evolution of top income shares," Research Reports P52, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    10. Andonie, Costel & Kuzmics, Christoph & Rogers, Brian W., 2019. "Efficiency-based measures of inequality," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 60-69.
    11. Casilda Lasso de la Vega & Ana Urrutia & Oscar Volij, 2011. "An Axiomatic Characterization Of The Theil Inequality Order," Working Papers 1103, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
    12. Tugce, Cuhadaroglu, 2013. "My Group Beats Your Group: Evaluating Non-Income Inequalities," SIRE Discussion Papers 2013-49, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    13. Maria Cubel & Peter Lambert, 2002. "Progression-neutral income tax reforms and horizontal inequity," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 77(1), pages 1-8, December.
    14. Teixidó Figueras, Jordi & Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio, 2012. "Ecological Footprint Inequality: A methodological review and some results," Working Papers 2072/203168, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    15. Hoy, Michael & Huang, Rachel J., 2017. "Measuring discrimination using principles of stochastic dominance," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 39-52.
    16. Nicola Fuchs-Schuendeln & Dirk Krueger & Mathias Sommer, 2010. "Inequality Trends for Germany in the Last Two Decades: A Tale of Two Countries," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(1), pages 103-132, January.
    17. Frankel, David M. & Volij, Oscar, 2011. "Measuring school segregation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 1-38, January.
    18. Sorger, Gerhard & Stark, Oded, 2013. "Income redistribution going awry: The reversal power of the concern for relative deprivation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 1-9.
    19. Lorena Remuzgo & Jose Maria Sarabia, 2015. "A general factorial decomposition of the second Theil index of inequality with applications in environmental economics," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(2), pages 1369-1378.
    20. Nicole Palan, 2010. "Measurement of Specialization – The Choice of Indices," FIW Working Paper series 062, FIW.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Ostdeutschland ; Westdeutschland ; Einkommenseffekte ; Einkommensentwicklung ; Einkommenshöhe ; Einkommensverteilung ; abhängig Beschäftigte ; Lohnhöhe ; regionale Disparität ; regionaler Vergleich ; Rentenversicherung ; Selbständige ; Sozialausgaben ; Sozialleistungen ; Sozialpolitik ; Sozialversicherung ; Transferleistung ; Arbeitslosenversicherung ; Verteilungseffekte ; 2001-2003;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D30 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - General
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iab:iabdpa:200901. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: IAB, Geschäftsbereich Wissenschaftliche Fachinformation und Bibliothek (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iabbbde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.