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Superentrepreneurship and Global Imbalances: Closing Europe's Gap to Other Industrialized Regions

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The overwhelming majority of self-employed individuals are not entrepreneurial in the Schumpeterian sense. To unmistakably identify Schumpeterian entrepreneurs, we focus on self-made billionaires (in USD) from the Forbes Magazine list who became wealthy by founding new firms. In this way, we identify 996 billionaire entrepreneurs in over fifty countries during the 1996–2010 period. Interestingly, the rate of billionaire entrepreneurs per capita correlates negatively with self-employment rates. Countries with higher incomes, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment and lower regulatory burdens have higher entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Europe has a higher self-employment rate than the United States and East Asia. At the same time, Europe has a lower entrepreneurship rate than competitor regions. Europe underperforms in entrepreneurship despite having advantages such as a skilled labour force, good infrastructure, large markets and strong performance in technological innovation.

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  • Henrekson, Magnus & Sanandaji, Tino, 2014. "Superentrepreneurship and Global Imbalances: Closing Europe's Gap to Other Industrialized Regions," Working Paper Series 1049, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 03 Aug 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:1049
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    1. Henrekson, Magnus & Sanandaji, Tino, 2017. "Schumpeterian Entrepreneurship in Europe Compared to Other Industrialized Regions," Working Paper Series 1170, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 29 Jun 2018.
    2. Henrekson, Magnus & Sanandaji, Tino, 2016. "Stock Option Taxation and Venture Capital Activity: A Cross-Country Comparison," Working Paper Series 1104, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 09 Nov 2017.
    3. Magnus Henrekson & Tino Sanandaji, 2018. "Stock option taxation: a missing piece in European innovation policy?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 411-424, August.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Regulation; Self-employment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • P14 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems - - - Property Rights

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