Child-Care in Norway: Use of Parental Leave by Fathers
An important feature of parental leave in Norway is that it allows significant sharing of leave between parents. Parents may take 54 weeks of leave and receive 80 per cent of previous earnings or 44 weeks of leave with 100 per cent of earnings, up to a ceiling amount. Nine weeks of total leave are, however, reserved for the mother and six weeks for the father and, as a general rule, these weeks cannot be transferred to the other parent. The remaining parental leave can be shared between parents. A reserved period of leave for fathers, known as the paternity quota, was introduced in 1993. Initially, this quota was four weeks. The paternity quota has been a great success and is utilized by 80–85 per cent of eligible fathers; however, very few fathers share gender-neutral parental leave. In this paper, we use register data to investigate factors that may influence fathers’ share of parental leave for children born in 2001. We find that married fathers use more leave than cohabitants. In addition, fathers’ education, mothers’ income and number of preschool children positively affect fathers’ use of the paternity quota and gender-neutral leave. Fathers’ workplace does not affect the use of the paternity quota but has a significant effect on the use of gender-neutral leave.
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- Alice Nakamura & Masao Nakamura, 1994. "Predicting Female Labor Supply: Effects of Children and Recent Work Experience," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 304-327.
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