IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Effectiveness of Policy Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Passenger Cars in Austria


  • Tobias Eibinger

    (University of Graz, Austria)

  • Hans Manner

    (University of Graz, Austria)


Passenger transport plays a crucial role in achieving climate-neutrality. While a switch to zero-emission vehicles is a crucial part in this process, policy makers likely have to resort to a differentiated mix of complementary policy measures to achieve global targets on climate-neutrality. To help policy makers design effective measures, we analyse the effect of environmental policies on CO2 emissions from passenger cars in Austria from 1965-2019. In a first step, we propose an environmental policy stringency index for the Austrian transport sector for the period 1950-2019. In a second step, we analyse the effect of different policies on transport-related CO2 emissions in a structural vector autoregressive model. This allows us to control for possible interdependencies between the variables. We find that taxes on vehicle-related emissions and policies that influence the usage of cars (through, e.g., speed limits, car-free days, road pricing) can significantly reduce CO2 emissions and contribute to an accelerated transition towards a carbon-neutral society. Among tax-based policies, we find emission-based taxes on new vehicles to be most effective. Finally, our results indicate that more efficient fuels can reduce emissions from existing vehicles at a limited magnitude.

Suggested Citation

  • Tobias Eibinger & Hans Manner, 2022. "The Effectiveness of Policy Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Passenger Cars in Austria," Graz Economics Papers 2022-04, University of Graz, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:grz:wpaper:2022-04

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Georgatzi, Vasiliki V. & Stamboulis, Yeoryios & Vetsikas, Apostolos, 2020. "Examining the determinants of CO2 emissions caused by the transport sector: Empirical evidence from 12 European countries," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 11-20.
    2. Dugan, Anna & Mayer, Jakob & Thaller, Annina & Bachner, Gabriel & Steininger, Karl W., 2022. "Developing policy packages for low-carbon passenger transport: A mixed methods analysis of trade-offs and synergies," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 193(C).
    3. Helmut Lütkepohl, 2005. "New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis," Springer Books, Springer, number 978-3-540-27752-1, July.
    4. Kilian,Lutz & Lütkepohl,Helmut, 2018. "Structural Vector Autoregressive Analysis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107196575, December.
    5. Felix Creutzig & Joyashree Roy & William F. Lamb & Inês M. L. Azevedo & Wändi Bruine de Bruin & Holger Dalkmann & Oreane Y. Edelenbosch & Frank W. Geels & Arnulf Grubler & Cameron Hepburn & Edgar G. H, 2018. "Towards demand-side solutions for mitigating climate change," Nature Climate Change, Nature, vol. 8(4), pages 260-263, April.
    6. Galeotti, Marzio & Salini, Silvia & Verdolini, Elena, 2020. "Measuring environmental policy stringency: Approaches, validity, and impact on environmental innovation and energy efficiency," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C).
    7. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Hoang, Nam & Grieb, Terrance, 2018. "Hedging Positions, Basis, and Futures Risk Premium: A Disaggregated Data Analysis on US Wheat Markets," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 273799, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    2. Terrance Grieb & Nam Hoang, 2019. "The Effects of Hedging and Speculation on Cash-Futures Basis: Results from U.S. Wheat Markets," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 17, pages 1-15, August.
    3. Blazsek, Szabolcs & Escribano, Álvaro & Licht, Adrian, 2019. "Co-integration and common trends analysis with score-driven models : an application to the federal funds effective rate and US inflation rate," UC3M Working papers. Economics 28451, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    4. Olugbenga Onafowora & Oluwole Owoye, 2019. "Impact of external debt shocks on economic growth in Nigeria: a SVAR analysis," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 52(2), pages 157-179, May.
    5. Kühl, Michael, 2007. "Cointegration in the foreign exchange market and market efficiency since the introduction of the Euro: Evidence based on bivariate cointegration analyses," University of Göttingen Working Papers in Economics 68, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    6. Mehmet Balcilar & Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir & Huseyin Ozdemir & Gurcan Aygun & Mark E. Wohar, 2022. "Effectiveness of monetary policy under the high and low economic uncertainty states: evidence from the major Asian economies," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 63(4), pages 1741-1769, October.
    7. Carlos David Ardila-Dueñas & Hernán Rincón-Castro, 2019. "¿Cómo y qué tanto impacta la deuda pública a las tasas de interés de mercado?," Borradores de Economia 1077, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    8. Atems, Bebonchu & Mette, Jehu & Lin, Guoyu & Madraki, Golshan, 2023. "Estimating and forecasting the impact of nonrenewable energy prices on US renewable energy consumption," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 173(C).
    9. Binh Thai Pham & Hector Sala, 2022. "Cross-country connectedness in inflation and unemployment: measurement and macroeconomic consequences," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 62(3), pages 1123-1146, March.
    10. Ibrahim, Omar, 2021. "Measuring the Output Effects of Fiscal Policy in Egypt: A Disaggregated Structural VAR Analysis," MPRA Paper 110962, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Sebastian Fossati, 2013. "Unit root testing with stationary covariates and a structural break in the trend function," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3), pages 368-384, May.
    12. Mikio Ito & Akihiko Noda & Tatsuma Wada, 2014. "International stock market efficiency: a non-Bayesian time-varying model approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(23), pages 2744-2754, August.
    13. John D. Levendis, 2018. "Time Series Econometrics," Springer Texts in Business and Economics, Springer, number 978-3-319-98282-3, March.
    14. Holmes, Mark J. & Otero, Jesús & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2013. "Modelling the behaviour of unemployment rates in the US over time and across space," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(22), pages 5711-5722.
    15. Mikio Ito & Akihiko Noda & Tatsuma Wada, 2016. "The evolution of stock market efficiency in the US: a non-Bayesian time-varying model approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(7), pages 621-635, February.
    16. Zeeshan Khan & Muhsin Ali & Dervis Kirikkaleli & Salman Wahab & Zhilun Jiao, 2020. "The impact of technological innovation and public‐private partnership investment on sustainable environment in China: Consumption‐based carbon emissions analysis," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(5), pages 1317-1330, September.
    17. Leila Dagher & Ibrahim Jamali & Nasser Badra, 2020. "The Predictive Power of Oil and Commodity Prices for Equity Markets," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Stéphane Goutte & Khaled Guesmi (ed.), Risk Factors and Contagion in Commodity Markets and Stocks Markets, chapter 3, pages 47-82, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    18. Schleer, Frauke & Semmler, Willi, 2013. "Financial sector-output dynamics in the euro area: Non-linearities reconsidered," ZEW Discussion Papers 13-068, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    19. Alessandro Marra & Emiliano Colantonio, 2022. "The institutional and socio-technical determinants of renewable energy production in the EU: implications for policy," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 49(2), pages 267-299, June.
    20. Hernández, Juan R., 2014. "Peso-Dollar Forward Market Analysis: Explaining Arbitrage Opportunities during the Financial Crisis," MPRA Paper 100653, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Climate change; CO2 emissions; passenger transport; mitigation; policy stringency; vector autoregression.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C54 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Quantitative Policy Modeling
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:grz:wpaper:2022-04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Michael Scholz (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.