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Real shocks and real exchange rates in really long-term data

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  • John H. Rogers

Abstract

There is little consensus concerning the sources of fluctuations in real exchange rates. In this paper I assess the nature of the shocks that drive the real U.S. dollar-U.K. pound exchange rate, analyzing 130 years of data. I first show that wars, which are examples of a (transitory) real shock, are significant. I next use an alternative empirical approach, in which I identify various types of real and nominal shocks. I find that output shocks and monetary shocks account for approximately the same percentage of the variance of the real exchange rate over short horizons. The monetary shock is decomposed into monetary base and money multiplier shocks and the output shock is decomposed into supply and demand shocks. Essentially all of the effect of the combined output shock is due to the demand shock. The effect of the monetary shock is accounted for by both money multiplier shocks and monetary base shocks in roughly equal amounts. Thus, the paper suggests that the contributions of real and monetary shocks are roughly equal overall, while shedding light on the nature of those shocks.

Suggested Citation

  • John H. Rogers, 1995. "Real shocks and real exchange rates in really long-term data," International Finance Discussion Papers 493, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:493
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Lee, Jaewoo & Chinn, Menzie D., 2006. "Current account and real exchange rate dynamics in the G7 countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 257-274, March.
    2. Engel, Charles, 2000. "Long-run PPP may not hold after all," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 243-273, August.
    3. Amalia Morales-Zumaquero & Simon Sosvilla-Rivero, "undated". "Structural Breaks in Volatility: Evidence from the OECD Real Exchange Rates," Working Papers 2004-22, FEDEA.
    4. Rogers, John H., 1999. "Monetary shocks and real exchange rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 269-288, December.
    5. Mark, Nelson C. & Choi, Doo-Yull, 1997. "Real exchange-rate prediction over long horizons," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 29-60, August.
    6. Menzie Chinn, 1995. "Whither the Yen? Implications of an intertemporal model of the Yen/Dollar rate," International Finance 9508001, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 28 Aug 1995.
    7. John T. Cuddington & Hong Liang, 1998. "Commodity Price Volatility Across Exchange Rate Regimes," International Finance 9802003, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 11 May 1998.
    8. Grossmann, Axel & Love, Inessa & Orlov, Alexei G., 2014. "The dynamics of exchange rate volatility: A panel VAR approach," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 1-27.
    9. Jaanus Raim, 2004. "The Alternative to the Existing System of the Concepts about Purchasing Power Parity Deviations . Derived from the Estonian Experience," Working Papers 115, Tallinn School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology.
    10. Kenneth A. Froot & Michael Kim & Kenneth Rogoff, 1995. "The Law of One Price Over 700 Years," NBER Working Papers 5132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. John T. Cuddington & Hong Liang, 2000. "Will the Emergence of the Euro Affect World Commodity Prices?," Working Papers 00-01, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
    12. Selahattin Dibooglu & Faik Koray, 2001. "The Behavior of the Real Exchange Rate Under Fixed and Floating Exchange Rate Regimes," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 123-143, April.
    13. Mark S Astley & Anthony Garratt, 1998. "Exchange rates and prices: sources of sterling real exchange rate fluctuations 1973-94," Bank of England working papers 85, Bank of England.
    14. Chinn, Menzie David, 1997. "Paper pushers or paper money? Empirical assessment of fiscal and monetary models of exchange rate determination," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 51-78, February.
    15. Morales-Zumaquero, Amalia & Sosvilla-Rivero, Simon, 2010. "Structural breaks in volatility: Evidence for the OECD and non-OECD real exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 139-168, February.
    16. Chinn, Menzie David, 1997. "Whither the Yen? Implications of an Intertemporal Model of the Dollar/Yen Rate," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 228-246, June.

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