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Prudential Policies and Their Impact on Credit in the United States

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Abstract

We analyze how two types of recently used prudential policies affected the supply of credit in the United States. First, we test whether the U.S. bank stress tests had any impact on the supply of mortgage credit. We find that the first Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review (CCAR) stress test in 2011 had a negative effect on the share of jumbo mortgage originations and approval rates at stress-tested banks?banks with worse capital positions were impacted more negatively. Second, we analyze the impact of the 2013 Supervisory Guidance on Leveraged Lending and subsequent 2014 FAQ notice, which clarified expectations on the Guidance. We find that the share of speculative-grade term-loan originations decreased notably at regulated banks after the FAQ notice.

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  • Paul S. Calem & Ricardo Correa & Seung Jung Lee, 2016. "Prudential Policies and Their Impact on Credit in the United States," International Finance Discussion Papers 1186, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:1186
    DOI: 10.17016/IFDP.2016.1186
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    Cited by:

    1. Niepmann, Friederike & Stebunovs, Viktors, 2018. "Modeling Your Stress Away," CEPR Discussion Papers 12624, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Kim, Sooji & Plosser, Matthew C. & Santos, João A.C., 2018. "Macroprudential policy and the revolving door of risk: Lessons from leveraged lending guidance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 17-31.
    3. Ivan Marinovic & Martin Szydlowski, 2019. "Monitor Reputation and Transparency," 2019 Meeting Papers 125, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    4. Susan M. Wachter, 2018. "Credit risk transfer, informed markets, and securitization," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 24-3, pages 117-137.
    5. Friederike Niepmann & Tim Schmidt‐Eisenlohr & Emily Liu, 2021. "The effect of US stress tests on monetary policy spillovers to emerging markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 165-194, February.
    6. Georgoutsos, Dimitris & Moratis, George, 2020. "On the informative value of the EU-wide stress tests and the determinants of banks’ stock return reactions," MPRA Paper 62773, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Kok, Christoffer & Müller, Carola & Ongena, Steven & Pancaro, Cosimo, 2021. "The disciplining effect of supervisory scrutiny in the EU-wide stress test," Working Paper Series 2551, European Central Bank.
    8. Andreas Fuster & Matthew Plosser & James Vickery, 2018. "Does CFPB Oversight Crimp Credit?," Staff Reports 857, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    9. Leonardo Gambacorta & Andrés Murcia, 2019. "The impact of macroprudential policies and their interaction with monetary policy: an empirical analysis using credit registry data," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Are post-crisis statistical initiatives completed?, volume 49, Bank for International Settlements.
    10. Shapiro, Joel & Zeng, Jing, 2019. "Stress Testing and Bank Lending," CEPR Discussion Papers 13907, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. William F. Bassett & Jose M. Berrospide, 2018. "The Impact of Post Stress Tests Capital on Bank Lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2018-087, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Acharya, Viral V. & Berger, Allen N. & Roman, Raluca A., 2018. "Lending implications of U.S. bank stress tests: Costs or benefits?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 58-90.
    13. Yavuz Arslan and Christian Upper, 2017. "Macroprudential frameworks: implementation and effectiveness," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Macroprudential frameworks, implementation and relationship with other policies, volume 94, pages 25-47, Bank for International Settlements.
    14. Cortés, Kristle R. & Demyanyk, Yuliya & Li, Lei & Loutskina, Elena & Strahan, Philip E., 2020. "Stress tests and small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 260-279.
    15. Carlos Garriga & Athena Tsouderou & Pedro Gete, 2019. "Housing Dynamics without Homeowners. The Role of I," 2019 Meeting Papers 1407, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    16. Gete, Pedro & reher, Michael, 2017. "Mortgage Supply and Housing Rents," MPRA Paper 82856, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Boot, Arnoud & Hoffmann, Peter & Laeven, Luc & Ratnovski, Lev, 2021. "Fintech: what’s old, what’s new?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank stress tests; CCAR; Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data; Jumbo mortgages; Leveraged lending; Macroprudential policy; Shared National Credit (SNC) data; Interagency Guidance on Leveraged Lending; Syndicated loan market;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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