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Prudential Policies and Their Impact on Credit in the United States

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Abstract

We analyze how two types of recently used prudential policies affected the supply of credit in the United States. First, we test whether the U.S. bank stress tests had any impact on the supply of mortgage credit. We find that the first Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review (CCAR) stress test in 2011 had a negative effect on the share of jumbo mortgage originations and approval rates at stress-tested banks?banks with worse capital positions were impacted more negatively. Second, we analyze the impact of the 2013 Supervisory Guidance on Leveraged Lending and subsequent 2014 FAQ notice, which clarified expectations on the Guidance. We find that the share of speculative-grade term-loan originations decreased notably at regulated banks after the FAQ notice.

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  • Paul S. Calem & Ricardo Correa & Seung Jung Lee, 2016. "Prudential Policies and Their Impact on Credit in the United States," International Finance Discussion Papers 1186, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgif:1186
    DOI: 10.17016/IFDP.2016.1186
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    Cited by:

    1. Kok, Christoffer & Müller, Carola & Ongena, Steven & Pancaro, Cosimo, 2021. "The disciplining effect of supervisory scrutiny in the EU-wide stress test," Working Paper Series 2551, European Central Bank.
    2. Acharya, Viral V. & Berger, Allen N. & Roman, Raluca A., 2018. "Lending implications of U.S. bank stress tests: Costs or benefits?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 58-90.
    3. Niepmann, Friederike & Stebunovs, Viktors, 2018. "Modeling Your Stress Away," CEPR Discussion Papers 12624, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Leonardo Gambacorta & Andrés Murcia, 2019. "The impact of macroprudential policies and their interaction with monetary policy: an empirical analysis using credit registry data," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Are post-crisis statistical initiatives completed?, volume 49, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Kim, Sooji & Plosser, Matthew C. & Santos, João A.C., 2018. "Macroprudential policy and the revolving door of risk: Lessons from leveraged lending guidance," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 17-31.
    6. Ivan Marinovic & Martin Szydlowski, 2019. "Monitor Reputation and Transparency," 2019 Meeting Papers 125, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    7. D. Georgoutsos & G. Moratis, 2021. "On the informative value of the EU-wide stress tests and the determinants of banks’ stock return reactions," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 48(4), pages 977-1008, November.
    8. Susan M. Wachter, 2018. "Credit risk transfer, informed markets, and securitization," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue 24-3, pages 117-137.
    9. Friederike Niepmann & Tim Schmidt‐Eisenlohr & Emily Liu, 2021. "The effect of US stress tests on monetary policy spillovers to emerging markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(1), pages 165-194, February.
    10. Cappelletti, Giuseppe & Reghezza, Alessio & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Spaggiari, Martina, 2020. "Compositional effects of O-SII capital buffers and the role of monetary policy," Working Paper Series 2440, European Central Bank.
    11. Yavuz Arslan and Christian Upper, 2017. "Macroprudential frameworks: implementation and effectiveness," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Macroprudential frameworks, implementation and relationship with other policies, volume 94, pages 25-47, Bank for International Settlements.
    12. Cortés, Kristle R. & Demyanyk, Yuliya & Li, Lei & Loutskina, Elena & Strahan, Philip E., 2020. "Stress tests and small business lending," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 260-279.
    13. Carlos Garriga & Athena Tsouderou & Pedro Gete, 2019. "Housing Dynamics without Homeowners. The Role of I," 2019 Meeting Papers 1407, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    14. Andreas Fuster & Matthew Plosser & James Vickery, 2018. "Does CFPB Oversight Crimp Credit?," Staff Reports 857, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. Pedro Gete & Michael Reher, 2018. "Mortgage Supply and Housing Rents," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 31(12), pages 4884-4911.
    16. Boot, Arnoud & Hoffmann, Peter & Laeven, Luc & Ratnovski, Lev, 2021. "Fintech: what’s old, what’s new?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    17. Konietschke, Paul & Ongena, Steven & Ponte Marques, Aurea, 2022. "Stress tests and capital requirement disclosures: do they impact banks’ lending and risk-taking decisions?," Working Paper Series 2679, European Central Bank.
    18. García, Raffi E. & Steele, Suzanne, 2022. "Stress testing and bank business patterns: A regression discontinuity study," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    19. Shapiro, Joel & Zeng, Jing, 2019. "Stress Testing and Bank Lending," CEPR Discussion Papers 13907, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. González, Francisco, 2022. "Macroprudential policies and bank competition: International bank-level evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
    21. Luu, Hiep Ngoc & Vo, Xuan Vinh, 2021. "The Impact of Supervisory Stress Tests on Bank Ex-Ante Risk-Taking Behaviour: Empirical Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    22. William F. Bassett & Jose M. Berrospide, 2018. "The Impact of Post Stress Tests Capital on Bank Lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2018-087, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    23. Mircea Epure & Irina Mihai & Camelia Minoiu & José-Luis Peydró, 2017. "Global financial cycle, household credit, and macroprudential policies," Economics Working Papers 1590, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Sep 2021.
    24. Aramonte, Sirio & Lee, Seung Jung & Stebunovs, Viktors, 2022. "Risk taking and low longer-term interest rates: Evidence from the U.S. syndicated term loan market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank stress tests; CCAR; Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data; Jumbo mortgages; Leveraged lending; Macroprudential policy; Shared National Credit (SNC) data; Interagency Guidance on Leveraged Lending; Syndicated loan market;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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