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Corruption and Foreign Direct Investment:What kind of relationship is there?

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  • José Manuel Martins Caetano

    () (Department of Economics, University of Évora)

  • António Caleiro

    () (Department of Economics, University of Évora)

Abstract

Globalization and technological innovations create investment opportunities for firms worldwide. In fact, while firms pursue foreign direct investment (FDI) opportunities on a global basis, countries compete to attract these flows. Investment decisions by firms depend on complex and distinct factors. In particular, in the case of foreign investment one of these factors relates to the perception that investors have about the level of risk and/or corruption (or transparency) that characterises countries. Recent studies suggest that corruption negatively impacts on FDI and may act as a disincentive to investment. By using information for 97 countries, concerning inward FDI performance and perceived level of corruption, this paper intends to analyse how corruption influences on the FDI. Given that a certain level of perceived corruption can, in fact, be subject to different subjective evaluations by investors, the paper uses a fuzzy logic approach in order to determine conceivable clusters in the FDI-corruption space. The use of fuzzy clustering techniques reveals the existence of two well-defined clusters: one is formed by high-level corruption countries, where, indeed, corruption is negatively correlated, in a significant way, with FDI; the other is formed by low-level corruption countries, where the influence of corruption on FDI is not so evident.

Suggested Citation

  • José Manuel Martins Caetano & António Caleiro, 2005. "Corruption and Foreign Direct Investment:What kind of relationship is there?," Economics Working Papers 18_2005, University of Évora, Department of Economics (Portugal).
  • Handle: RePEc:evo:wpecon:18_2005
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10174/8434
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Marco Celentani & Juan-José Ganuza & José-Luis Peydró, 2004. "Combating Corruption in International Business Transactions," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 71(283), pages 417-448, August.
    2. Drabek, Zdenek & Payne, Warren, 2002. "The Impact of Transparency on Foreign Direct Investment," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 17, pages 777-810.
    3. António Caleiro, 2005. "How is Confidence Related to Unemployment in Europe? A fuzzy logic answer," Economics Working Papers 1_2005, University of Évora, Department of Economics (Portugal).
    4. Carlo Bagnoli & Halbert C. Smith, 1998. "The Theory of Fuzzy Logic and its Application to Real Estate Valuation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(2), pages 169-200.
    5. James E. West & Bruce Linster, 2003. "The Evolution of Fuzzy Rules as Strategies in Two-Player Games," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 705-717, January.
    6. Lee, Jeong-Yeon & Mansfield, Edwin, 1996. "Intellectual Property Protection and U.S. Foreign Direct Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 181-186, May.
    7. John H Dunning, 1995. "Reappraising the Eclectic Paradigm in an Age of Alliance Capitalism," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 26(3), pages 461-491, September.
    8. John H Dunning, 1988. "The Eclectic Paradigm of International Production: A Restatement and Some Possible Extensions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(1), pages 1-31, March.
    9. Smith, Pamela J., 2001. "How do foreign patent rights affect U.S. exports, affiliate sales, and licenses?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 411-439, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Sotirios Bellos & Turan Subasat, 2012. "Corruption And Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel Gravity Model Approach," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 565-574, October.
    2. Karpaty, Patrik & Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik, 2011. "Offshoring of Services and Corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?," Working Papers 2011:2, Örebro University, School of Business, revised 28 May 2012.
    3. Heyman Fredrik & Tingvall Patrik Gustavsson, 2015. "The Dynamics of Offshoring and Institutions," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 15(4), pages 1975-2016, October.
    4. repec:ksp:journ2:v:4:y:2017:i:1:p:19-54 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Tomáš Evan & Ilya Bolotov, 2014. "The Weak Relation between Foreign Direct Investment and Corruption: A Theoretical and Econometric Study," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2014(4), pages 474-492.
    6. Patrik Karpaty & Patrik Tingvall, 2015. "Service Offshoring and Corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 15(4), pages 363-381, December.
    7. Rahim M. Quazi, 2014. "Corruption and Foreign Direct Investment in East Asia and South Asia: An Econometric Study," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 4(2), pages 231-242.
    8. Tingvall, Patrik, 2011. "Dynamic Effects of Corruption on Offshoring," Ratio Working Papers 182, The Ratio Institute.
    9. Bitzenis, Aristidis & Tsitouras, Antonis & Vlachos, Vasileios A., 2009. "Decisive FDI obstacles as an explanatory reason for limited FDI inflows in an EMU member state: The case of Greece," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 691-704, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corruption; Foreign Direct Investment; Fuzzy Clustering;

    JEL classification:

    • C49 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Other
    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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