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Economic Freedom and Foreign Direct Investment: How different are the MENA countries from the EU?

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  • José Martins Caetano

    () (Department of Economics, University of Évora)

  • António Bento Caleiro

    () (Department of Economics, University of Évora)

Abstract

The risk perceived by investors is crucial in the decision to invest, in particular when it concerns a foreign country. The investment risk associated is a multi-faceted element given that it reflects many aspects that are relevant to (foreign) investors, such as the level of transparency, corruption, rule of law, governance, etc. In this paper we consider the level of economic freedom, as provided by the ?Heritage Foundation?, for the most recent years, in order to analyse how is this measure of risk related to the inward foreign direct investment performance index, as provided by the UNCTAD. Given the subjectivity of risk an appropriate methodology consists on using fuzzy logic clustering, which is applied in the paper in order to verify how different the MENA region is from the set of EU-member states. The results show that economic freedom and inward FDI are positively associated, in particular in the cluster of countries that present a higher economic freedom. Of particular interest is the result that some MENA countries belong to the same cluster of most of the EU-countries.

Suggested Citation

  • José Martins Caetano & António Bento Caleiro, 2009. "Economic Freedom and Foreign Direct Investment: How different are the MENA countries from the EU?," Economics Working Papers 02_2009, University of Évora, Department of Economics (Portugal).
  • Handle: RePEc:evo:wpecon:02_2009
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Pierre-Guillaume Méon & Khalid Sekkat, 2004. "Does the Quality of Institutions Limit the MENA's Integration in the World Economy?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(9), pages 1475-1498, September.
    2. Berggren, Niclas, 2003. "The Benefits of Economic Freedom: A Survey," Ratio Working Papers 4, The Ratio Institute.
    3. Khalid Sekkat & Marie-Ange Veganzones-Varoudakis, 2007. "Openness, Investment Climate, and FDI in Developing Countries," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(4), pages 607-620, November.
    4. John H Dunning, 1995. "Reappraising the Eclectic Paradigm in an Age of Alliance Capitalism," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 26(3), pages 461-491, September.
    5. Lee C. Adkins & Ronald L. Moomaw & Andreas Savvides, 2002. "Institutions, Freedom, and Technical Efficiency," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 92-108, July.
    6. Graeff, P. & Mehlkop, G., 2003. "The impact of economic freedom on corruption: different patterns for rich and poor countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 605-620, September.
    7. Daniele, Vittorio & Marani, Ugo, 2006. "Do institutions matter for FDI? A comparative analysis for the MENA countries," MPRA Paper 2426, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    1. repec:ijb:journl:v:16:y:2017:i:1:p:31-48 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:rsr:supplm:v:65:y:2017:i:8:p:174-188 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:ovi:oviste:v:xvii:y:2017:i:1:p:41-45 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Turan Subasat & Sotiris Bellos, 2011. "Economic Freedom and Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America: A Panel Gravity Model Approach," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2053-2065.
    5. Alina Taran & Marilena Mironiuc & Maria-Carmen Huian, 2016. "Examining The Influence Of Some Macroeconomic Factors On Foreign Direct Investments," Review of Economic and Business Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 18, pages 159-182, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic Freedom; European Union (EU) countries; Foreign Direct Investment; Fuzzy Clustering; Institutions; Middle East North Africa (MENA) countries;

    JEL classification:

    • C49 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Other
    • E22 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Investment; Capital; Intangible Capital; Capacity
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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