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Implications of Oil Price Shocks and Subsidizing Oil Prices to the Ethiopian Economy: A CGE Analysis


  • Birouke Tefera

    () (Ethiopian Development Research Institute)

  • Frehiwot Worku

    () (Ethiopian Development Research Institute)

  • Zewdu Ayalew

    () (Ethiopian Development Research Institute)


Economic growth is largely dependent on the availability of reliable sources of energy. As an importer of oil and petroleum products, Ethiopia’s economy is potentially vulnerable to fluctuations in the world price of crude oil. The recent oil price shocks adversely affected oil-importing developing countries such as Ethiopia. The paper attempts to quantify the impact of an increase in international price of crude oil and oil subsidy scheme on the Ethiopian Economy by applying the IFPRI’s static CGE model using the EDRI’s 2005/06 SAM. The results show that the oil price shock causes a depreciation of the Ethiopian Birr (ETB) and brings about an increase in exports and a decline in imports. The depreciation of the ETB also brings a rise in agricultural tradable goods output and a decline in manufacturing and service sectors output. The shock also deteriorates income and consumption of all households. In general, rural households are more negatively affected by the oil price shock as compared to urban households. The oil subsidy scheme increases government expenditure and reduces government savings, hence total investment falls. Output of the construction sector goes down because of the fall in investment demand. On the other hand, the oil subsidy improves consumption of all households. In the short run, the oil price subsidy scheme improves household welfare. Nevertheless, in the long run it is harmful since it absorbs a high share of limited public resources, leads to lower investments and reduces future growth. Financing the oil subsidy scheme by increasing taxes on other goods brings improvement in investments but it distorts the level of domestic production and household welfare. We conclude that this type of subsidy is an inefficient tool to reverse the high oil price increase in developing countries. Rather, finding ways to substitute oil by other energy sources could be a better solution in the medium to long-run.

Suggested Citation

  • Birouke Tefera & Frehiwot Worku & Zewdu Ayalew, 2012. "Implications of Oil Price Shocks and Subsidizing Oil Prices to the Ethiopian Economy: A CGE Analysis," Working Papers 008, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:etd:wpaper:008

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James D. Hamilton, 2009. "Understanding Crude Oil Prices," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 179-206.
    2. Tadesse Kuma (PhD), 2010. "Analysis of Changes in Food Consumption Patterns in Urban Ethiopia," Working Papers 002, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    3. Schubert, Stefan F., 2014. "Dynamic Effects Of Oil Price Shocks And Their Impact On The Current Account," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 316-337, March.
    4. Abul Quasem Al-Amin & Siwar Chamhuri & Abdul Hamir Jaafar, 2008. "Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," Economic Analysis Working Papers (2002-2010). Atlantic Review of Economics (2011-2016), Colexio de Economistas de A Coruña, Spain and Fundación Una Galicia Moderna, vol. 7, pages 1-24, October.
    5. Ahmed, Vaqar & O' Donoghue, Cathal, 2008. "Welfare impact of external balance in pakistan: CGE-microsimulation analysis," MPRA Paper 9267, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Junhee Lee & Joonhyuk Song, 2009. "Nature of Oil Price Shocks and Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 15306, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Ibrahim Worku, 2011. "Road Sector Development and Economic Growth in Ethiopia," Ethiopian Journal of Economics, Ethiopian Economics Association, vol. 19(2), November.
    8. Bahre Gebru & Sosina Bezu, 2012. "Environmental Resource Collection versus Children’s Schooling: Evidence from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia," Working Papers 007, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    9. Kefyalew Endale, 2011. "Fertilizer Consumption and Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia," Working Papers 003, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    10. Yabibal Mulualem Walle, 2010. "Tourist Flows and Its Determinants in Ethiopia," Working Papers 001, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
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