Environmental Resource Collection versus Children’s Schooling: Evidence from Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Previous studies in Ethiopia treat child labour and schooling in a broader sense without much attention to the kind of labor they are engaged in. This paper distinctively examines the adverse effect of natural resources scarcity on children’s schooling and the possible gender bias against girls’ schooling due to resource collection work. It uses a cross sectional data of 316 children aging 7 to 18 years collected from 120 rural households of Enderta and Hintalo Wajerat woredas in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. The two-stage conditional maximum likelihood (2SCML) estimation technique is employed to take care of endogeneity between schooling and collection intensity decisions. The results revealed that a 50 percent increase in collection intensity reduces the likelihood of child schooling by approximately 12 percent. Even though girls more often participateon resource gathering tasks, we find no evidence of gender based difference against girls’ schooling due to resource collection intensity. Timely collection of fodder resources from cultivated land—soon enough so amount and quality will not deteriorate, planting fodder-rich tree species, promoting labor sharing arrangements, and maintenance of the non-operating constructed water sources can reduce the time spent on environmental resources collection and improve the likelihood of schooling.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
- Guy Blaise Nkamleu, 2009. "Determinants of Child Labour and Schooling in the Native Cocoa Households of Côte d'Ivoire," Research Papers RP_190, African Economic Research Consortium.
- Gronau, Reuben, 1977.
"Leisure, Home Production, and Work-The Theory of the Allocation of Time Revisited,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(6), pages 1099-1123, December.
- Reuben Gronau, 1976. "Leisure, Home Production and Work--The Theory of The Allocation of Time Revisited," NBER Working Papers 0137, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Benjamin Chiedozie Okpukpara & Ngozi Odurukwe, 2006. "Incidence and determinants of child labour in Nigeria: Implications for poverty alleviation," Research Papers RP_156, African Economic Research Consortium.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Evenson, Robert E, 1977. "Fertility, Schooling, and the Economic Contribution of Children in Rural India: An Econometric Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(5), pages 1065-79, July.
- Wagura Ndiritu, Simon & Nyangena, Wilfred, 2010. "Environmental Goods Collection and Children’s Schooling: Evidence from Kenya," Discussion Papers dp-10-18-efd, Resources For the Future.
- Nankhuni, Flora J. & Findeis, Jill L., 2004. "Natural resource-collection work and children's schooling in Malawi," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 31(2-3), pages 123-134, December.
- Rasmus Heltberg & Thomas Channing Arndt & Nagothu Udaya Sekhar, 2000. "Fuelwood Consumption and Forest Degradation: A Household Model for Domestic Energy Substitution in Rural India," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(2), pages 213-232.
- Sharada Weir, 2011. "Parental Attitudes and Demand for Schooling in Ethiopia," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 20(1), pages 90-110, January.
- George Psacharopoulos, 1997. "Child labor versus educational attainment Some evidence from Latin America," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 377-386.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:etd:wpaper:007. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dagmawi Atnafu)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.