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Submarket Dynamics and Innovation: The Case of the U.S. Tire Industry

Author

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  • Guido Buenstorf

    ()

  • Steven Klepper

Abstract

Beginning in 1922, the rate of exit of U.S. tire producers increased sharply and the industry began a severe and protracted shakeout. Just five years earlier, the tire industry experienced a surge in entry that led to a rise of over 80% in the number of producers. We propose an explanation for this episode based on the idea of industry submarkets, which we incorporate in a model of shakeouts. We test this theory and alternative explanations for the surge in entry and exit and the shakeout using a novel data set on patenting in tires and production in the early 1920s of the cord tire, a key innovation we feature in our theory. Our analysis suggests that the development of a new submarket can open up opportunities for entry but also stimulate innovation and in the process reinforce the advantages of the leading incumbents, accentuating the shakeout of producers.

Suggested Citation

  • Guido Buenstorf & Steven Klepper, 2009. "Submarket Dynamics and Innovation: The Case of the U.S. Tire Industry," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2009-15, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
  • Handle: RePEc:esi:evopap:2009-15
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jovanovic, Boyan & MacDonald, Glenn M, 1994. "The Life Cycle of a Competitive Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(2), pages 322-347, April.
    2. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:i:4:p:861-886 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Christensen, Clayton M., 1993. "The Rigid Disk Drive Industry: A History of Commercial and Technological Turbulence," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 67(04), pages 531-588, December.
    4. Steven Klepper, 2002. "Firm Survival and the Evolution of Oligopoly," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(1), pages 37-61, Spring.
    5. Utterback, James M. & Suarez, Fernando F., 1993. "Innovation, competition, and industry structure," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 1-21, February.
    6. Steven Klepper & Kenneth L. Simons, 2000. "The Making of an Oligopoly: Firm Survival and Technological Change in the Evolution of the U.S. Tire Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 728-760, August.
    7. Horvath, Michael & Schivardi, Fabiano & Woywode, Michael, 2001. "On industry life-cycles: delay, entry, and shakeout in beer brewing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(7), pages 1023-1052, July.
    8. Naomi R. Lamoreaux & Margaret Levenstein & Kenneth L. Sokoloff, 2004. "Financing Invention During the Second Industrial Revolution: Cleveland, Ohio, 1870-1920," NBER Working Papers 10923, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Naomi R. Lamoreaux & Kenneth L. Sokoloff (ed.), 2007. "Financing Innovation in the United States, 1870 to Present," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262122898, January.
    10. Cohen, Wesley M & Klepper, Steven, 1996. "Firm Size and the Nature of Innovation within Industries: The Case of Process and Product R&D," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 232-243, May.
    11. Steven Klepper & Peter Thompson, 2006. "Submarkets and the evolution of market structure," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(4), pages 861-886, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Christian Garavaglia & Franco Malerba & Luigi Orsenigo & Michele Pezzoni, 2012. "Technological regimes and demand structure in the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 677-709, September.
    2. Lalit Manral, 2015. "The demand-side dynamics of entrant heterogeneity," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 401-445, April.
    3. Roberto Fontana & Lorenzo Zirulia, 2015. "“…then came Cisco, and the rest is history”: a ‘history friendly’ model of the Local Area Networking industry," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 875-899, November.
    4. Apostolos Baltzopoulos & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Ioannis Tikoudis, 2016. "Spin-offs: why geography matters," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 273-303.
    5. SHIMIZU, Hiroshi & WAKUTSU, Naohiko, 2017. "Spin-Outs and Patterns of Subsequent Innovation: Technological Development of Laser Diodes in the US and Japan," IIR Working Paper 17-14, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    6. Shimizu, Hiroshi & Wakutsu, Naohiko, 2014. "Entrepreneurial Spin-Outs and Vanishing Technological Trajectory: Laser Diodes in the U.S. and Japan," IIR Working Paper 13-21, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    7. Andrea Morrison & Ron Boschma, 2017. "The spatial evolution of the Italian motorcycle industry (1893-1993): KlepperÕs heritage theory revisited," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1707, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Mar 2017.
    8. Garavaglia Christian & Malerba Franco & Orsenigo Luigi & Pezzoni Michele, 2014. "Innovation and Market Structure in Pharmaceuticals: An Econometric Analysis on Simulated Data," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 234(2-3), pages 274-298, April.
    9. Guido Buenstorf, 2016. "Schumpeterian incumbents and industry evolution," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 823-836, October.
    10. Buchmann, Tobias & Hain, Daniel & Kudic, Muhamed & Müller, Matthias, 2014. "Exploring the Evolution of Innovation Networks in Science-driven and Scale-intensive Industries: New Evidence from a Stochastic Actor-based Approach," IWH Discussion Papers 1/2014, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Submarkets; Innovation; Shakeouts Length 31 pages;

    JEL classification:

    • L65 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Chemicals; Rubber; Drugs; Biotechnology; Plastics
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R30 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - General

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