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Looking for a middle class bias: salary and co-operation in social surveys

  • Toomse, Mari
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    The aim of this paper is to test the existence of middle class bias in survey cooperation. We do this by carrying out a record check study. Our analysis uncovers no evidence of middle class bias. Instead we find a negative gross bias in estimates of the proportion of persons with highest salaries. We also find that high salary earners are more likely to be hard refusers. We argue that this 'elite resistance' is due to specific attitudes rather than more transient features of an interaction. We suggest that these attitudes could be overcome by tailoring of advance communication.

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    File URL: https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/working-papers/iser/2010-03.pdf
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    Paper provided by Institute for Social and Economic Research in its series ISER Working Paper Series with number 2010-03.

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    Date of creation: 17 Feb 2010
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    Publication status: published
    Handle: RePEc:ese:iserwp:2010-03
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Publications Office, Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ UK
    Phone: 44-1206-872957
    Fax: 44-1206-873151
    Web page: https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/
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    Order Information: Postal: Publications Office, Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester, Essex CO4 3SQ UK
    Web: https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/publications/ Email:


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    1. Alesina, Alberto F & La Ferrara, Eliana, 2000. "Who Trusts Others?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2646, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. J. Fitzgerald & P. Gottschalk & R. Moffitt, . "An Analysis of Sample Attrition in Panel Data: The Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1156-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    3. Marjo Pyy-Martikainen & Ulrich Rendtel, 2008. "Assessing the impact of initial nonresponse and attrition in the analysis of unemployment duration with panel surveys," AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis, Springer, vol. 92(3), pages 297-318, August.
    4. Laura Fumagalli & Heather Laurie & Peter Lynn, 2013. "Experiments with methods to reduce attrition in longitudinal surveys," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 176(2), pages 499-519, 02.
    5. Will, Jeffry A. & McGrath, John H., 1995. "Crime, neighborhood perceptions, and the underclass: The relationship between fear of crime and class position," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 163-176.
    6. Kangas, Olli E., 1997. "Self-interest and the common good: The impact of norms, selfishness and context in social policy opinions," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 475-494.
    7. John Goyder & Jean Lock & Trish McNair, 1992. "Urbanization effects on survey nonresponse: a test within and across cities," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 39-48, February.
    8. Pedersen, Peder J., 2002. "Non-Response Bias – A Study Using Matched Survey-Register Labour Market Data," CLS Working Papers 02-2, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
    9. Delhey, Jan & Newton, Kenneth, 2004. "Social trust: Global pattern or nordic exceptionalism?," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Inequality and Social Integration SP I 2004-202, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    10. Daniel H. Hill & Robert J. Willis, 2001. "Reducing Panel Attrition: A Search for Effective Policy Instruments," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(3), pages 416-438.
    11. Sean Becketti & William Gould & Lee Lillard & Finis Welch, 1985. "The Panel Study of Income Dynamics After Fourteen Years: An Evaluation," UCLA Economics Working Papers 361, UCLA Department of Economics.
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