Exports, government size and economic growth (Evidence from Iran as a developing oil-export based economy)
In this study, I investigate the short run and long run effects of government size and exports on the economic growth of Iran as a developing oil export based economy for the period of 1974 to 2008. For this purpose I use the bounds testing approach to cointegration and error correction models, developed within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework. A modified form of Ram’s (1986) model has been applied to include both government size and exports as determinants of economic growth in addition to labor force and capital. I use total exports, oil exports and non-oil exports respectively in three different equations to assess their effects on economic growth. Moreover, according to Armey curve(1995) in each of the equations I test the existence of non-linear relationship between government size and economic growth. My findings show that in all of the equations both in long run and short run the Armey curve is valid for Iranian economy, indicating that both a very big size and a too small size of government are harmful for growth and Iranian government should adjust its size (to have smaller size, compared to the average size over the period of this study) for obtaining higher rates of growth. The results show that total exports, the amount of oil exports in terms of barrels and oil prices could affect the economic growth positively and significantly both in short run and long run. However because of the weaknesses of the Iranian non-oil sectors, the non-oil exports could not have significant effects on growth in the long run. As a result of this study in the short run, Iran should try to attract foreign technologies and investments to develop the capacity and ability of its oil production. In the short run this can be a reliable factor for having the stable economy in comparison with relying on uncertain oil prices. In the long run Iran should use the oil revenues to improve its economic structure and invest on some non-oil sectors to diversify its non-oil exports. This can create new resources for government revenues and will reduce the dependence of the economy on Oil exports.
|Date of creation:||27 Feb 2012|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX Den Haag|
Phone: +31 70 4260 460
Fax: +31 70 4260 799
Web page: http://www.iss.nl/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anaman, Kwabena A., 2004. "Determinants of economic growth in Brunei Darussalam," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 777-796, August.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015.
"Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-276, March.
- Esfahani, Hadi Salehi & Mohaddes, Kamiar & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2013. "Oil exports and the Iranian economy," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 221-237.
- Esfahani, H.S. & Mohaddes, K. & Pesaran, M.H., 2009. "Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0944, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Hadi Salehi Esfahani & Kamiar Mohaddes & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2010. "Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy," Working Papers 534, Economic Research Forum, revised 07 Jan 2010.
- Hadi Salehi Esfahani & Kamiar Mohaddes & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2009. "Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy," CESifo Working Paper Series 2843, CESifo Group Munich.
- Esfahani, Hadi Salehi & Mohaddes, Kamiar & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2009. "Oil Exports and the Iranian Economy," IZA Discussion Papers 4537, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ram, Rati, 1987. "Exports and Economic Growth in Developing Countries: Evidence from Time-Series and Cross-Section Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 51-72, October.
- Aamer Abu-Qarn & Suleiman Abu-Bader, 2004. "The validity of the ELG hypothesis in the MENA region: cointegration and error correction model analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(15), pages 1685-1695.
- Aamer Abu-Qarn & Suleiman Abu-Bader, 2001. "The Validity of the ELG Hypothesis in the MENA Region: Cointegration and Error Correction Model Analysis," Working Papers 134, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
- Abu-Qarn, Aamer & Abu-Bader, Suleiman, 2001. "The Validity of the ELG Hypothesis in the MENA Region: Cointegration and Error Correction Model Analysis," MPRA Paper 1116, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Folster, Stefan & Henrekson, Magnus, 2001. "Growth effects of government expenditure and taxation in rich countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(8), pages 1501-1520, August.
- Fölster, Stefan & Henrekson, Magnus, 1998. "Growth Effects of Government Expenditure and Taxation in Rich Countries," Working Paper Series 503, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 20 Jun 2000.
- Fölster, Stefan & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. "Growth Effects of Government Expenditure and Taxation in Rich Countries," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 391, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, 2009. "Economic Diplomacy and the Geography of International Trade," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 13518.
- Yousif Khalifa Al-Yousif, 1997. "Exports and economic growth:some empirical evidence from the Arab Gulf countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(6), pages 693-697.
- Balassa, Bela, 1985. "Exports, policy choices, and economic growth in developing countries after the 1973 oil shock," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 23-35.
- Kormendi, Roger C & Meguire, Philip G, 1995. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private-Sector Behavior: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1357-1361, December.
- Kormendi, Roger C & Meguire, Philip, 1986. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private Sector Behavior: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1180-1187, December.
- Fajana, Olufemi, 1979. "Trade and growth: The Nigerian experience," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 73-78, January.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Ron P. Smith, 1998. "Structural Analysis of Cointegrating VARs," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 471-505, December.
- Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza, 2011. "Oil revenue shocks and government spending behavior in Iran," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1055-1069.
- Barro, Robert J, 1990. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 103-126, October.
- Robert J. Barro, 1988. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," NBER Working Papers 2588, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barro, Robert J., 1990. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogeneous Growth," Scholarly Articles 3451296, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Barro, R.J., 1988. "Government Spending In A Simple Model Of Endogenous Growth," RCER Working Papers 130, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Ram, Rati, 1985. "Exports and Economic Growth: Some Additional Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 415-425, January.
- Dar, Atul A. & AmirKhalkhali, Sal, 2002. "Government size, factor accumulation, and economic growth: evidence from OECD countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(7-8), pages 679-692, November.
- Ram, Rati, 1986. "Government Size and Economic Growth: A New Framework and Some Evidencefrom Cross-Section and Time-Series Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 191-203, March.
- Esfahani, Hadi Salehi, 1991. "Exports, imports, and economic growth in semi-industrialized countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 93-116, January.
- Abdullah Yavas, 1998. "Does too much government investment retard economic development of a country?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 25(4), pages 296-308, September.
- Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee & A. B. M. Nasir, 2004. "ARDL Approach to Test the Productivity Bias Hypothesis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 483-488, 08.
- Edmund J. Sheehey, 1993. "The Effect of Government Size on Economic Growth," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 19(3), pages 321-328, Summer. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ems:euriss:31594. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (RePub)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.