IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Response of Firms to Eligibility Thresholds : Evidence from the Japanese Value-Added Tax

  • Kazuki Onji

    (Australia–Japan Research Centre, Australian National University)

It is common to defi ne benefi t eligibility for small business policies by restrictions on the fi rm size. This paper investigates the incentives for a large fi rm to masquerade as many small fi rms by separately incorporating business segments, focusing on the case of the Japanese value-added tax. The paper fi nds that the masquerading was pervasive and took place quickly after the introduction of tax incentives. Tax avoidance caused 3.4 per cent of the overall revenue drain in 1990, thus reducing horizontal equity, but the effi ciency consequence would not have been severe. This study suggests that the masquerading by fi rms may be commonplace in other settings.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.eaber.org/node/21965
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by East Asian Bureau of Economic Research in its series Finance Working Papers with number 21965.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Jan 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:eab:financ:21965
Contact details of provider: Postal: JG Crawford Building #13, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, ACT 0200
Web page: http://www.eaber.org

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Kazuki Onji, 2008. "The Response of Firms to Eligibility Thresholds: Evidence from the Japanese Value-Added Tax," Asia Pacific Economic Papers 370, Australia-Japan Research Centre, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  2. Roberto Torrini & Fabiano Schivardi, 2004. "Threshold effects and firm size: The case of firing costs," 2004 Meeting Papers 445, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason & Roger H. Gordon, 1991. "How Much Do Taxes Discourage Incorporation," NBER Working Papers 3781, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Harry Grubert & Joel Slemrod, 1998. "The Effect Of Taxes On Investment And Income Shifting To Puerto Rico," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(3), pages 365-373, August.
  5. Thomas F. Cargill & Michael M. Hutchison & Takatoshi Ito, 1997. "The Political Economy of Japanese Monetary Policy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262032473, June.
  6. Cabral, Luís M B & Mata, José, 2001. "On the Evolution of the Firm Size Distribution: Facts and Theory," CEPR Discussion Papers 3045, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Goolsbee, Austan & Maydew, Edward, 2002. "Taxes and Organizational Form: The Case of REIT Spin-offs," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 55(3), pages 441-56, September.
  8. DiNardo, John & Tobias, Justin, 2001. "Nonparametric Density and Regression Estimation," Staff General Research Papers 12020, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  9. Myron S. Scholes & Mark A. Wolfson, 1989. "The Effects of Changes in Tax Laws on Corporate Reorganization Activity," NBER Working Papers 3095, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Daniel Chiquiar & Gordon H. Hanson, 2002. "International Migration, Self-Selection, and the Distribution of Wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States," NBER Working Papers 9242, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Ishi, Hiromitsu, 2001. "The Japanese Tax System," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 3, number 9780199242566, March.
  12. Tarun Khanna & Yishay Yafeh, 2005. "Business Groups and Risk Sharing around the World," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(1), pages 301-340, January.
  13. Yafeh, Yishay, 2000. "Corporate Governance in Japan: Past Performance and Future Prospects," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 74-84, Summer.
  14. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Angrist, 1998. "Consequences of Employment Protection? The Case of the Americans with Disabilities Act," NBER Working Papers 6670, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Gordon, R.H. & Mackie-Mason, J.K., 1993. "Tax Distorsions to the Choice of Organizational Form," Memorandum 21/1993, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  16. Stanley, Michael H. R. & Buldyrev, Sergey V. & Havlin, Shlomo & Mantegna, Rosario N. & Salinger, Michael A. & Eugene Stanley, H., 1995. "Zipf plots and the size distribution of firms," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 453-457, October.
  17. Kaizuka, Keimei, 1992. "The Shoup Tax System and the Postwar Development of the Japanese Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 221-25, May.
  18. Roger H. Gordon & Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason, 1990. "Effects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on Corporate Financial Policy and Organizational Form," NBER Working Papers 3222, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Flath, David, 2014. "The Japanese Economy," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 3, number 9780198702405, March.
  20. Sivadasan, Jagadeesh & Slemrod, Joel, 2008. "Tax law changes, income-shifting and measured wage inequality: Evidence from India," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(10-11), pages 2199-2224, October.
  21. Baldwin, John R & Gorecki, Paul K, 1985. "The Determinants of Small Plant Market Share in Canadian Manufacturing Industries in the 1970s," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(1), pages 156-61, February.
  22. Curry, B & George, K D, 1983. "Industrial Concentration: A Survey," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(3), pages 203-55, March.
  23. David Johnson & Roger Wilkins, 2004. "Effects of Changes in Family Composition and Employment Patterns on the Distribution of Income in Australia: 1981-1982 to 1997-1998," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 80(249), pages 219-238, 06.
  24. Kristin F. Butcher & John DiNardo, 2002. "The Immigrant and native-born wage distributions: Evidence from United States censuses," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 56(1), pages 97-121, October.
  25. Hatta, Tatsuo, 1992. "The Nakasone-Takeshita Tax Reform: A Critical Evaluation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 231-36, May.
  26. James R. Hines, Jr. & Eric M. Rice, 1990. "Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business," NBER Working Papers 3477, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. Burkhauser, Richard V, et al, 1999. "Testing the Significance of Income Distribution Changes over the 1980s Business Cycle: A Cross-National Comparison," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(3), pages 253-72, May-June.
  28. Roger H. Gordon & Joel Slemrod, 1998. "Are "Real" Responses to Taxes Simply Income Shifting Between Corporate and Personal Tax Bases?," NBER Working Papers 6576, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Stephens, Melvin Jr & Ward-Batts, Jennifer, 2004. "The impact of separate taxation on the intra-household allocation of assets: evidence from the UK," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 1989-2007, August.
  30. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521355643 is not listed on IDEAS
  31. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521586115 is not listed on IDEAS
  32. Peter Hart & Nicholas Oulton, 1997. "Zipf and the size distribution of firms," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(4), pages 205-206.
  33. Schmalensee, Richard, 1988. "Industrial Economics: An Overview," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(392), pages 643-81, September.
  34. Peter B. Dixon & Mark R. Picton & Maureen T. Rimmer, 2004. "Payroll Taxes: Thresholds, Firm Sizes, Dead-weight Losses and Commonwealth Grants Commission Funding," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 80(250), pages 289-301, 09.
  35. Grubert, Harry & Mutti, John, 1991. "Taxes, Tariffs and Transfer Pricing in Multinational Corporate Decision Making," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(2), pages 285-93, May.
  36. Noguchi, Yukio, 1992. "The Changing Japanese Economy and the Need for a Fundamental Shift in the Tax System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 226-30, May.
  37. White, Lawrence J, 1982. "The Determinants of the Relative Importance of Small Business," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(1), pages 42-49, February.
  38. John Lintner & J. Keith Butters, 1955. "Effects of Taxes on Concentration," NBER Chapters, in: Business Concentration and Price Policy, pages 239-280 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  39. Colin Wren, 2002. "Evaluating the effect of soft business support upon small firm performance," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(2), pages 334-365, April.
  40. Keen, Michael & Mintz, Jack, 2004. "The optimal threshold for a value-added tax," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3-4), pages 559-576, March.
  41. Granovetter, Mark, 1995. "Coase Revisited: Business Groups in the Modern Economy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 93-130.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eab:financ:21965. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shiro Armstrong)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.