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Hedging and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Aïd, René
  • Chemla, Gilles
  • Porchet, Arnaud
  • Touzi, Nizar

Abstract

This paper analyzes the interactions between competitive (wholesale) spot, retail, and forward markets and vertical integration in electricity markets. We develop an equilibrium model with producers, retailers, and traders to study and quantify the impact of forward markets and vertical integration on prices, risk premia and retail market shares. We point out that forward hedging and vertical integration are two separate mechanisms for demand and spot price risk diversification that both reduce the retail price and increase retail market shares. We show that they differ in their impact on prices and firms' utility due to the asymmetry between production and retail segments. Vertical integration restores the symmetry between producers' and retailers' exposure to demand risk while linear forward contracts do not. Vertical integration is superior to forward hedging when retailers are highly risk averse. We illustrate our analysis with data from the French electricity market.

Suggested Citation

  • Aïd, René & Chemla, Gilles & Porchet, Arnaud & Touzi, Nizar, 2011. "Hedging and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 8313, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8313
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, January.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6313 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Chemla, G., 1999. "Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration," Papers 99-18, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
    4. Alfred D. Chandler, 1969. "Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262530090, January.
    5. Nils-Henrik M. von der Fehr & Petter Vegard Hansen, 2010. "Electricity Retailing in Norway," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 25-46.
    6. Mansur, Erin T, 2007. "Upstream Competition and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(1), pages 125-156, February.
    7. Emons, Winand, 1996. "Good times, bad times, and vertical upstream integration," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 465-484, June.
    8. Khalid Sekkat, 2006. "Vertical Relationships and the Firm in the Global Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2907.
    9. Evens SALIES & Catherine WADDAMS, 2004. "Charges, costs and market power in the deregulated UK electricity retail market," Industrial Organization 0406003, EconWPA.
    10. Christian Gollier, 2004. "The Economics of Risk and Time," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262572249, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:appene:v:198:y:2017:i:c:p:49-64 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Boroumand, Raphaël Homayoun & Goutte, Stéphane & Porcher, Simon & Porcher, Thomas, 2015. "Hedging strategies in energy markets: The case of electricity retailers," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 503-509.
    3. Karsten Neuhoff & Sophia Rüster & Sebastian Schwenen, 2015. "Power Market Design beyond 2020: Time to Revisit Key Elements?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1456, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Guy Meunier, 2014. "Risk Aversion and Technology Portfolios," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 44(4), pages 347-365, June.
    5. Füss, Roland & Mahringer, Steffen & Prokopczuk, Marcel, 2015. "Electricity derivatives pricing with forward-looking information," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 34-57.
    6. Ren'e Aid & Luciano Campi & Delphine Lautier, 2015. "On the spot-futures no-arbitrage relations in commodity markets," Papers 1501.00273, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2018.
    7. repec:eee:eneeco:v:67:y:2017:i:c:p:355-365 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Meunier, Guy, 2013. "Risk aversion and technology mix in an electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 866-874.
    9. Downward, Anthony & Young, David & Zakeri, Golbon, 2016. "Electricity retail contracting under risk-aversion," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 251(3), pages 846-859.
    10. repec:eco:journ2:2017-03-31 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Gibson, Rajna & Habib, Michel A. & Ziegler, Alexandre, 2014. "Reinsurance or securitization: The case of natural catastrophe risk," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 79-100.
    12. repec:kap:revind:v:52:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11151-017-9580-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Bunn, Derek W. & Oliveira, Fernando S., 2016. "Dynamic capacity planning using strategic slack valuation," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 253(1), pages 40-50.
    14. Steeger, Gregory & Rebennack, Steffen, 2017. "Dynamic convexification within nested Benders decomposition using Lagrangian relaxation: An application to the strategic bidding problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 257(2), pages 669-686.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    electricity markets; forward; hedging; producers; retailers; spot; vertical integration;

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets

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