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Demand Patterns Across the Development Spectrum: Estimates for the AIDADS System


  • Maureen T. Rimmer
  • Alan A. Powell


This is a companion paper to Impact Preliminary Working Paper No OP-73 in which Rimmer and Powell report on a new implicitly directly additive demand system (AIDADS) which (in Cooper and McLaren's 1992b terminology) is effectively globally regular. In OP-73 AIDADS is fitted to a six-commodity disaggregation of a 35-year Australian time series of consumption. Unlike the linear expenditure system and the Rotterdam model, the new system allows marginal budget shares to vary as a function of income. In the current paper we also work at a six-commodity level, fitting AIDADS to an international cross section of 30 countries in 1975. The data are from the International Comparisons Project of Kravis, Heston and Summers (1982) and previously were analyzed by Theil and Clements (1987) using a combination of additive preferences and Working's (1943) model in differential form. The present results overcome two potential shortcomings of the earlier work by replacing Working's model with a more regular specification of Engel effects and by providing and estimating an explicit functional form in the levels of the variables. A rough comparison can be made between the time-series estimates of OP-73 and the cross-sectional ones reported here. We found the two sets of results broadly consistent (although the rate of decline in Food's marginal budget share was less in the Australian time series than in the international cross section). Overall, the new system performed well empirically. It seems suitable for modelling demand for broad consumption aggregates (say up to about a dozen commodities) in situations in which there may be very large variations in income per head.

Suggested Citation

  • Maureen T. Rimmer & Alan A. Powell, 1992. "Demand Patterns Across the Development Spectrum: Estimates for the AIDADS System," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-75, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:cop:wpaper:op-75

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanoch, Giora, 1975. "Production and Demand Models with Direct or Indirect Implicit Additivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 43(3), pages 395-419, May.
    2. Cooper, Russel J & McLaren, Keith R, 1996. "A System of Demand Equations Satisfying Effectively Global Regularity Conditions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 359-364, May.
    3. Chris M. Alaouze, 1977. "Estimates of the elasticity of substitution between imported and domestically produced goods classified at the input-output level of aggregation," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers o-13, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    4. Russel J. Cooper & Keith R. McLaren, 1992. "An Empirically Oriented Demand System with Improved Regularity Properties," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 25(3), pages 652-668, August.
    5. K.R. Pearson, 1991. "Solving Nonlinear Economic Models Accurately Via a Linear Representation," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers ip-55, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    6. Maureen T. Rimmer & Alan A. Powell, 1992. "An Implicitly Directly Additive Demand System: Estimates for Australia," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-73, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    7. Clements, Kenneth W & Selvanathan, Antony & Selvanathan, Saroja, 1996. "Applied Demand Analysis: A Survey," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 72(216), pages 63-81, March.
    8. Selvanathan, Saroja, 1991. "The Reliability of ML Estimators of Systems of Demand Equations: Evidence from OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(2), pages 346-353, May.
    9. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-326, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Alan A. Powell & Keith R. McLaren & K.R. Pearson & Maureen T.Rimmer, 2002. "Cobb-Douglas Utility - Eventually!," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers ip-80, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    2. Paul Preckel & Thomas Hertel & John Cranfield, 2005. "Implicit Additive Preferences: A Further Generalization of the CES," Working Papers 05-03, Purdue University, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    3. Roberto Roson & Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2017. "Demand-Driven Structural Change in Applied General Equilibrium Models," IEFE Working Papers 96, IEFE, Center for Research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    4. Clements, Kenneth W. & Gao, Grace, 2015. "The Rotterdam demand model half a century on," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 91-103.
    5. Gouel, Christophe & Guimbard, Houssein, 2017. "Nutrition transition and the structure of global food demand," IFPRI discussion papers 1631, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Regmi, Anita & Seale, James L., Jr., 2010. "Cross-Price Elasticities of Demand Across 114 Countries," Technical Bulletins 59870, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    7. Harrison, W Jill & Pearson, K. R. & Powell, Alan A. & Small, John E., 1994. "Solving Applied General Equilibrium Models Represented as a Mixture of Linearized and Levels Equations," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 7(3), pages 203-223.
    8. Hertel, T.W. & Preckel, P.V. & Cranfield, J.A.W. & Ivanic, M., 2002. "The impact of multiliteral agricultural trade liberalization on poverty in Brazil," Proceedings "Schriften der Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften des Landbaues e.V.", German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA), vol. 37.
    9. Valenzuela, Ernesto & Hertel, Thomas W. & Ivanic, Maros & Nin Pratt, Alejandro, 2004. "Evaluating Poverty Impacts of Globalization and Trade Policy Changes on Agricultural Producers," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20242, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    10. Yu, Wusheng & Hertel, Thomas W. & Preckel, Paul V. & Eales, James S., 2004. "Projecting world food demand using alternative demand systems," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 99-129, January.
    11. Yanrui Wu, 2004. "Understanding International Food Consumption Patterns," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 04-05, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    12. Maureen T. Rimmer & Alan A. Powell, 1994. "Engel Flexibility in Household Budget Studies: Non-parametric Evidence versus Standard Functional Forms," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-79, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models


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