IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

An Implicitly Directly Additive Demand System: Estimates for Australia


  • Maureen T. Rimmer
  • Alan A. Powell


The problem of endowing large applied general equilibrium models with numerical values for parameters is formidable. For example, a complete set of own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for the ORANI model involves 228 squared, or about 60 K items. Invoking the minimal assumptions that demand is generated by utility maximization reduces the load to about 26 K -- obviously still a number much too large for unrestrained econometric estimation. To obtain demand systems estimates for a dozen or so generic commodities at a top level of aggregation (categories like 'food', 'clothing and footwear', ...), typically Johansen's (1960) lead has been followed, and directly additive preferences imposed upon the underlying utility function. With the move beyond one-step linearized solutions of the ORANI model, the functional form of the demand system adopted becomes an issue. The most celebrated of the additive-preference demand systems, Stone's (1954) linear expenditure system (LES), has one drawback for empirical work; namely, the constancy of marginal budget shares (MBSs) -- a liability shared with the Rotterdam system (Barten, 1964, 1968; Theil, 1965, 1967). To get around this, Theil and Clements (1987) used Holbrook Working's (1943) Engel specification in conjunction with additive preferences; unfortunately both Working's formulation and Deaton and Muellbauer's (1980) AIDS have the problem that, under large changes in real incomes, budget shares can stray outside the [0,1] interval. It was such behaviour that led Cooper and McLaren (1987, 1988, 1991, forthcoming 1992) to invent MAIDS, a system with better regularity properties. MAIDS, however, is not globally compatible with any additive preference system. In this paper we specify, and estimate, at the six-commodity level, an implicitly directly additive-preference demand system which allows MBSs to vary as a function of total real expenditure and which is globally regular throughout that part of the the price-expenditure space in which the consumer is at least affluent enough to meet subsistence requirements.

Suggested Citation

  • Maureen T. Rimmer & Alan A. Powell, 1992. "An Implicitly Directly Additive Demand System: Estimates for Australia," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-73, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:cop:wpaper:op-73

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Initial version, 1992-10
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    File Function: Local abstract: may link to additional material.
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanoch, Giora, 1975. "Production and Demand Models with Direct or Indirect Implicit Additivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 43(3), pages 395-419, May.
    2. Cooper, Russel J & McLaren, Keith R, 1996. "A System of Demand Equations Satisfying Effectively Global Regularity Conditions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 359-364, May.
    3. Chris M. Alaouze, 1977. "Estimates of the elasticity of substitution between imported and domestically produced goods classified at the input-output level of aggregation," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers o-13, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    4. Russel J. Cooper & Keith R. McLaren, 1992. "An Empirically Oriented Demand System with Improved Regularity Properties," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 25(3), pages 652-668, August.
    5. K.R. Pearson, 1991. "Solving Nonlinear Economic Models Accurately Via a Linear Representation," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers ip-55, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    6. Reinert, Kenneth A. & Roland-Holst, David W., 1992. "Armington elasticities for United States manufacturing sectors," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 631-639, October.
    7. Clements, Kenneth W & Selvanathan, Antony & Selvanathan, Saroja, 1996. "Applied Demand Analysis: A Survey," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 72(216), pages 63-81, March.
    8. Selvanathan, Saroja, 1991. "The Reliability of ML Estimators of Systems of Demand Equations: Evidence from OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(2), pages 346-353, May.
    9. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-326, June.
    10. Deaton, A. S., 1972. "The estimation and testing of systems of dmeand equations: A note," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 399-411, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Alan A. Powell & Keith R. McLaren & K.R. Pearson & Maureen T.Rimmer, 2002. "Cobb-Douglas Utility - Eventually!," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers ip-80, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    2. Paul Preckel & Thomas Hertel & John Cranfield, 2005. "Implicit Additive Preferences: A Further Generalization of the CES," Working Papers 05-03, Purdue University, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    3. Maureen T. Rimmer & Alan A. Powell, 1992. "Demand Patterns Across the Development Spectrum: Estimates for the AIDADS System," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-75, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    4. Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng, 2008. "Household expenditure on food at home in Malaysia," MPRA Paper 15031, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, 2010. "Climate Change and Economic Growth: Impacts and Interactions," Working Papers 2010_07, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
    6. Valenzuela, Ernesto & Hertel, Thomas W., 2006. "Poverty Vulnerability and Trade Policy: Are the Likely Impacts Discernable?," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21397, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    7. van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 2013. "Modeling the Global Economy – Forward-Looking Scenarios for Agriculture," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier.
    8. Gouel, Christophe & Guimbard, Houssein, 2017. "Nutrition transition and the structure of global food demand," IFPRI discussion papers 1631, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Harrison, W Jill & Pearson, K. R. & Powell, Alan A. & Small, John E., 1994. "Solving Applied General Equilibrium Models Represented as a Mixture of Linearized and Levels Equations," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 7(3), pages 203-223.
    10. Hertel, T.W. & Preckel, P.V. & Cranfield, J.A.W. & Ivanic, M., 2002. "The impact of multiliteral agricultural trade liberalization on poverty in Brazil," Proceedings "Schriften der Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften des Landbaues e.V.", German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA), vol. 37.
    11. Bruce Bradbury, 1996. "Household Income Sharing, Joint Consumption and the Expenditure Patterns of Australian Retired Couples and Single People," Discussion Papers 0066, University of New South Wales, Social Policy Research Centre.
    12. Valenzuela, Ernesto & Hertel, Thomas W. & Ivanic, Maros & Nin Pratt, Alejandro, 2004. "Evaluating Poverty Impacts of Globalization and Trade Policy Changes on Agricultural Producers," 2004 Annual meeting, August 1-4, Denver, CO 20242, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    13. Paul Preckel & J. A. L. Cranfield & Thomas Hertel, 2010. "A modified, implicit, directly additive demand system," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 143-155.
    14. Bruce Bradbury, 1995. "Household Semi-Public Goods and the Estimation of Consumer Equivalence Scales: Some First Steps," Microeconomics 9508001, EconWPA.
    15. Maureen T. Rimmer & Alan A. Powell, 1994. "Engel Flexibility in Household Budget Studies: Non-parametric Evidence versus Standard Functional Forms," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers op-79, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
    16. K. K. Gary Wong, 2003. "Towards a more general approach to testing the time additivity hypothesis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(16), pages 1729-1738.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cop:wpaper:op-73. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Horridge). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.