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Longévité différentielle et redistribution : enjeux théoriques et empiriques

Listed author(s):
  • Marie-Louise Leroux
  • Pierre Pestieau
  • Grégory Ponthière

Dans cet article, nous étudions l'impact des différences de longévité sur la conception des politiques publiques, en particulier celles liées au départ à la retraite. Nous montrons premièrement qu'alors même que l'espérance de vie a augmenté de manière très importante tout au long du siècle dernier, il subsiste encore de fortes disparités. Deuxièmement, nous étudions d'un point de vue normatif comment les différences de longévité sont généralement prises en compte dans les modèles de cycle de vie et montrons que certaines hypothèses peuvent avoir des implications fortes en termes de redistribution intra-générationnelle. Nous identifions au moins trois arguments en faveur d'une redistribution vers les agents à faible longévité : l'aversion à l'inégalité intertemporelle, l'aversion au risque de mortalité et la compensation pour des caractéristiques dont les agents ne sont pas responsables. Nous étendons ensuite notre analyse de manière à tenir compte du fait que les individus puissent être en partie responsables de leur longévité. Finalement, nous lions ces résultats aux débats actuels sur la réforme des systèmes de retraite. Nous montrons qu'en général, parce que les pensions de retraite sont conditionnelles à la survie des bénéficiaires, les systèmes de retraite publics vont redistribuer des ressources des agents dont la durée de vie est courte vers ceux dont la durée de vie est longue. Nous fournissons des pistes de réformes qui viseraient à mieux prendre en compte ces différences de longévité et en particulier, celles relatives à la création d'une « rente longévité » telle que souhaitée par le Comité d'Amours et au développement de l'assurance autonomie, qu'elle soit privée ou publique.

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File URL: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2015s-06.pdf
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Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2015s-06.

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Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 25 Feb 2015
Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2015s-06
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