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Congestion and Accessibility: What's the Relationship

  • Mondschein, Andrew
  • Taylor, Brian D.
  • Brumbaugh, Stephen
Registered author(s):

    This project conceptually and empirically explores the complex relationships between congestion and accessibility. While congestion alters individual access to opportunities, its effects vary significantly across people, places, and time- variations that reaming relatively understudied. This report begins by proposing a conceptual framework with three components. First, congestion can constrain mobility and thus indirectly reduce accessibility. Second, congestion is associated with agglomeration of activity and with increased accessibility. Finally, congestion in in part a phenomenon of perception and behavior, cognitively altering an individuals choice set of destinations and altering actual access to opportunities. Congestion and individual travel data for the Los Angeles region are sued to explore the localized spatial relationship between congestion and accessibility. As our multifaceted framework suggests, congestion does not have a uniform effect on accessibility, but varies substantially by neighborhood. Our analysis finds that in some neighborhoods congestion appears to be associated with depressed levels of access, as conventional wisdom would suggest. Other neighborhoods, however, appear to be “congestion adapted,†allowing high levels of activity participation despite high levels of congestion. To account for personal characteristics such as income that may influence the spatial analysis, we construct a model of the number of daily trips as a function of an array of personal and household characteristics. Residuals from the model suggest that place-based neighborhood effects explain the relatively higher levels of travel by residents found in the “congestion adapted†neighborhoods.Â

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    File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh2n9wx.pdf;origin=repeccitec
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    Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt6bh2n9wx.

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    Date of creation: 01 Mar 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt6bh2n9wx
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    1. Wachs, Martin & Kumagai, T. Gordon, 1973. "Physical accessibility as a social indicator," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 437-456, October.
    2. Lothlorien Redmond & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2001. "The positive utility of the commute: modeling ideal commute time and relative desired commute amount," Transportation, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 179-205, May.
    3. S L Handy & D A Niemeier, 1997. "Measuring accessibility: an exploration of issues and alternatives," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(7), pages 1175-1194, July.
    4. Edward L. Glaeser & Matthew E. Kahn, 2003. "Sprawl and Urban Growth," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2004, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Alex Anas & Richard Arnott & Kenneth A. Small, 1998. "Urban Spatial Structure," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 1426-1464, September.
    6. Paul Anderson & David Levinson & Pavithra Parthasarathi, 2011. "Accessibility Futures," Working Papers 000088, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    7. Fujita, Masahisa & Thisse, Jacques-François, 1996. "Economics of Agglomeration," CEPR Discussion Papers 1344, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Taylor, Brian D., 2004. "The politics of congestion mitigation," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 299-302, July.
    9. Levine, Jonathan & Garb, Yaakov, 2002. "Congestion pricing's conditional promise: promotion of accessibility or mobility?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 179-188, July.
    10. Schönfelder, Stefan & Axhausen, Kay W., 2003. "Activity spaces: measures of social exclusion?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 273-286, October.
    11. Eiji Kawamoto, 2003. "Transferability of standardized regres Person-based approach sion model applied to person-based trip generation," Transportation Planning and Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(4), pages 331-359, August.
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