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From Motherhood Penalties to Husband Premia: The New Challenge for Gender Equality and Family Policy, Lessons from Norway

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  • Petersen, Trond
  • Penner, Andrew M
  • Høgsnes, Geir

Abstract

Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in cre- ating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer- employee data from Norway, 1979 – 96, a period with extensive expan- sion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and father- hood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties.

Suggested Citation

  • Petersen, Trond & Penner, Andrew M & Høgsnes, Geir, 2014. "From Motherhood Penalties to Husband Premia: The New Challenge for Gender Equality and Family Policy, Lessons from Norway," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt2hk409sk, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:indrel:qt2hk409sk
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    8. Blau, Francine D & Kahn, Lawrence M, 1996. "Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 63(250), pages 29-62, Suppl..
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    Cited by:

    1. Gabriele Mari & Giorgio Cutuli, 2019. "Do Parental Leaves Make the Motherhood Wage Penalty Worse? Assessing Two Decades of German Reforms," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1025, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    2. Peterson, Trond & Penner, Andrew & Høgsnes, Geir, 2016. "The Impact of Family Policies during Turbulent Times1," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt63k5p0s8, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    3. Wei-hsin Yu & Chi-Tsun Chiu, 2016. "Growing Pains: Changes in Psychological Well-Being in Urban China," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 129(3), pages 1349-1382, December.
    4. Mari, Gabriele & Cutuli, Giorgio, 2018. "Do parental leaves make the motherhood wage penalty worse? Assessing two decades of German reforms," SocArXiv f2nrc, Center for Open Science.
    5. David Brady & Agnes Blome & Julie A. Kmec, 2018. "Work-Family Reconciliation Policies And Women’s And Mothers’labor Market Outcomes In Rich Democracies," LIS Working papers 754, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    6. John R. Logan & Andrew Foster & Jun Ke & Fan Li, 2017. "The Uptick in Income Segregation: Real Trend or Random Sampling Variance," NBER Working Papers 23656, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Brady, David & Blome, Agnes & Kmec, Julie A., 2018. "Work-Family Reconciliation Policies and Women's and Mothers' Labor Market Outcomes in Rich Democracies," SocArXiv sbyz9, Center for Open Science.
    8. Daniel Oesch & Oliver Lipps & Patrick McDonald, 2017. "The wage penalty for motherhood: Evidence on discrimination from panel data and a survey experiment for Switzerland," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 37(56), pages 1793-1824.

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