IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cdi/wpaper/424.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

African Regional Agreements: Their Impact on Trade With or Without Currency Unions

Author

Listed:
  • Céline CARRERE

    () (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International(CERDI))

Abstract

The aim of this paper is (i) to assess the impact of regional agreements on members’ trade in Sub-Saharan Africa (intra-regional trade as well as trade with the rest of the world), controlling for the other traditional determinants, including geography and transport costs and (ii) to compare the respective effect of the preferential trade agreements and the monetary unions. Considering the period 1962-1996, we first assess the average impact of each regional agreement on their implementation period and second we show how these impacts have evolved. An “augmented” gravity model is designed, relying on a transport cost function, in which specific dummies allow trade creation and trade diversion effects to be separated. The model is estimated in panel with bilateral specific effects, to isolate the non-observable characteristics of each pair of countries, and according to the Hausman-Taylor (1981) method, which takes into account a possible endogeneity of some explanatory variables. During their implementation, the African regional trade agreements have generated a significant increase in trade between members, although initially often through trade diversion. In the two agreements of the CFA franc zone, the currency unions have largely reinforced the positive effect of the corresponding preferential trade agreements on intra-regional trade, while dampening their trade diversion effect. Actually, currency unions rather had a trade creation effect (all the more important as the international monetary environment has been more unstable), whereas preferential trade agreements resulted in important trade diversion.

Suggested Citation

  • Céline CARRERE, 2003. "African Regional Agreements: Their Impact on Trade With or Without Currency Unions," Working Papers 200311, CERDI.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdi:wpaper:424
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://publi.cerdi.org/ed/2003/2003.11.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Irwin, Douglas A., 1995. "Trade blocs, currency blocs and the reorientation of world trade in the 1930s," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1-2), pages 1-24, February.
    2. Jean-François Brun & Céline Carrère & Patrick Guillaumont & Jaime de Melo, 2015. "Has Distance Died? Evidence from a Panel Gravity Model," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Developing Countries in the World Economy, chapter 13, pages 299-320 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Bertrand LAPORTE, 1996. "L'intégration monétaire avant l'intégration commerciale : le cas de l'Afrique de l'Ouest," Working Papers 199626, CERDI.
    4. Jan Willem Gunning & Paul Collier, 1999. "Explaining African Economic Performance," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, pages 64-111.
    5. Laszlo Matyas, 1997. "Proper Econometric Specification of the Gravity Model," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 363-368, May.
    6. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1997. "Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 72.
    7. Antoni Estevadeordal & Brian Frantz & Alan M. Taylor, 2002. "The Rise and Fall of World Trade, 1870-1939," NBER Working Papers 9318, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Peter Egger, 2002. "An Econometric View on the Estimation of Gravity Models and the Calculation of Trade Potentials," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 297-312, February.
    9. Foroutan, Faezeh & Pritchett, Lant, 1993. "Intra-sub-Saharan African Trade: Is It Too Little?," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 2(1), pages 74-105, May.
    10. Masahiro Endoh, 1999. "Trade creation and trade diversion in the EEC, the LAFTA and the CMEA: 1960-1994," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(2), pages 207-216.
    11. Roberto Longo & Khalid Sekkat, 2001. "Obstacles to Expanding Intra-African Trade," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 169, OECD Publishing.
    12. Breusch, Trevor S & Mizon, Grayham E & Schmidt, Peter, 1989. "Efficient Estimation Using Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(3), pages 695-700, May.
    13. Andrew K. Rose & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "National Money as a Barrier to International Trade: The Real Case for Currency Union," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 386-390, May.
    14. Anne O. Krueger, 1999. "Trade Creation and Trade Diversion Under NAFTA," NBER Working Papers 7429, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Savvides, Andreas, 1996. "CFA Franc Zone Membership and Exchange Rate Variability," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 5(1), pages 52-68, March.
    16. Michel Galy & Michael T. Hadjimichael, 1997. "The CFA Franc Zone and the EMU," IMF Working Papers 97/156, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Yongzheng Yang & Sanjeev Gupta, 2005. "Regional Trade Arrangements in Africa; Past Performance and the Way Forward," IMF Working Papers 05/36, International Monetary Fund.
    2. George S. Tavlas, 2009. "The Benefits And Costs Of Monetary Union In Southern Africa: A Critical Survey Of The Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(1), pages 1-43, February.
    3. Bedassa Tadesse & Bichaka Fayissa, 2008. "The impact of African growth and opportunity act (Agoa) on U.S. imports from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(7), pages 920-941.
    4. Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku & van Bergeijk, Peter A.G., 2011. "Multi-membership and effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa: a comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 1, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdi:wpaper:424. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Vincent Mazenod). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ceauvfr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.