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Assessing the Localization Pattern of German Manufacturing & Service Industries - A Distance Based Approach


  • Hyun-Ju Koh

    () (University of Munich)

  • Nadine Riedel

    () (Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation)


This paper assesses the agglomeration pattern of four-digit industries in Germany using a rich data set on the population of German firms. To identify geographical agglomeration, we follow the distance based approach of Duranton and Overman (2005) and find that the location pattern of 78% of our industries departs from randomness in the sense that firms exhibit significant geographical localization. In line with previous studies on manufacturing firms in the UK and France, our analysis suggests that especially traditional manufacturing industries exhibit strong localization patterns. Moreover, we find that geographical localization is not restricted to the manufacturing sector but that it plays an equally, or even more important role in service industries.

Suggested Citation

  • Hyun-Ju Koh & Nadine Riedel, 2009. "Assessing the Localization Pattern of German Manufacturing & Service Industries - A Distance Based Approach," Working Papers 0913, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  • Handle: RePEc:btx:wpaper:0913

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Briant, A. & Combes, P.-P. & Lafourcade, M., 2010. "Dots to boxes: Do the size and shape of spatial units jeopardize economic geography estimations?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 287-302, May.
    2. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1986. "Efficiency of resource usage and city size," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 47-70, January.
    3. Helsley, Robert W. & Strange, William C., 1990. "Matching and agglomeration economies in a system of cities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 189-212, September.
    4. Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L. Glaeser, 2002. "Geographic Concentration As A Dynamic Process," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 193-204, May.
    5. Ellison, Glenn & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 889-927, October.
    6. Björn Alecke & Christoph Alsleben & Frank Scharr & Gerhard Untiedt, 2006. "Are there really high-tech clusters? The geographic concentration of German manufacturing industries and its determinants," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 40(1), pages 19-42, March.
    7. Duranton, Gilles & Puga, Diego, 2004. "Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 48, pages 2063-2117 Elsevier.
    8. Gilles Duranton & Henry G. Overman, 2005. "Testing for Localization Using Micro-Geographic Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(4), pages 1077-1106.
    9. E. D. Gould, 2007. "Cities, Workers, and Wages: A Structural Analysis of the Urban Wage Premium," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(2), pages 477-506.
    10. Glaeser, Edward L & Mare, David C, 2001. "Cities and Skills," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 316-342, April.
    11. Devereux, Michael P. & Griffith, Rachel & Simpson, Helen, 2004. "The geographic distribution of production activity in the UK," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 533-564, September.
    12. Bjoern Alecke & Gerhard Untiedt, 2006. "Die geografische Konzentration von Industrie und Dienstleistungen in Deutschland. Neue empirische Evidenz mittels des Ellison-Glaeser-Index," Working Papers 2-2006, GEFRA - Gesellschaft fuer Finanz- und Regionalanalysen.
    13. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00349294 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Maurel, Francoise & Sedillot, Beatrice, 1999. "A measure of the geographic concentration in french manufacturing industries," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 575-604, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tobias Scholl & Thomas Brenner, 2013. "Detecting Spatial Clustering Using a Firm-Level Index," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2012-02, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    2. Ehrl, Philipp, 2013. "Agglomeration economies with consistent productivity estimates," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 751-763.
    3. Tobias Scholl & Thomas Brenner, 2011. "Testing for Clustering of Industries - Evidence from micro geographic data," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2011-02, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.

    More about this item


    Geographic concentration; agglomeration;

    JEL classification:

    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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