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The leverage ratio over the cycle

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  • Michael Brei
  • Leonardo Gambacorta

Abstract

This paper analyses how the Basel III leverage ratio (Tier 1 capital/exposure) behaves over the cycle. The analysis proposes a setup to test for the cyclical properties of bank capital ratios, taking into account structural shifts in banks' behaviour during the global financial crisis and its aftermath. Using a large data set covering international banks headquartered in 14 advanced economies for the period 1995-2012, we find that the Basel III leverage ratio is significantly more countercyclical than the riskweighted regulatory capital ratio: it is a tighter constraint for banks in booms and a looser constraint in recessions.

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  • Michael Brei & Leonardo Gambacorta, 2014. "The leverage ratio over the cycle," BIS Working Papers 471, Bank for International Settlements.
  • Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:471
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    Cited by:

    1. Joseph G. Haubrich, 2015. "How Cyclical Is Bank Capital?," Working Papers (Old Series) 1504, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    2. Gambacorta, Leonardo & Murcia, Andrés, 2020. "The impact of macroprudential policies in Latin America: An empirical analysis using credit registry data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 42(C).
    3. Jaromir Benes & Douglas Laxton & Joannes Mongardini, 2018. "Mitigating the deadly embrace in financial cycles: Countercyclical buffers and loan-to-value limits," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Peter Pauly (ed.), Global Economic Modeling A Volume in Honor of Lawrence R. Klein, chapter 5, pages 90-111, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Ingo Fender & Ulf Lewrick, 2016. "Adding it all up: the macroeconomic impact of Basel II and outstanding reform issues," BIS Working Papers 591, Bank for International Settlements.
    5. Lukas Pfeifer & Libor Holub & Zdenek Pikhart & Martin Hodula, 2016. "The Role of the Leverage Ratio in Capital Regulation of the Banking Sector," Occasional Publications - Chapters in Edited Volumes, in: CNB Financial Stability Report 2015/2016, chapter 0, pages 137-148, Czech National Bank.
    6. Malovaná, Simona & Kolcunová, Dominika & Brož, Václav, 2019. "Does monetary policy influence banks’ risk weights under the internal ratings-based approach?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 1-1.
    7. Valipour Pasha , Mohammad & Arshadi , Ali, 2015. "Degree of Leverage Ratio Analysis in the Iranian Banking Network," Journal of Money and Economy, Monetary and Banking Research Institute, Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, vol. 10(2), pages 91-111, January.
    8. Janda, Karel & Kravtsov, Oleg, 2016. "Interdependencies between Leverage and Capital Ratios in the Banking Sector of the Czech Republic," MPRA Paper 74457, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Malovaná, Simona & Frait, Jan, 2017. "Monetary policy and macroprudential policy: Rivals or teammates?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1-16.
    10. Simona Malovana & Dominika Kolcunova & Vaclav Broz, 2018. "The effect of accommodative monetary policy on the risk weights applied by domestic banks," Occasional Publications - Chapters in Edited Volumes, in: CNB Financial Stability Report 2017/2018, chapter 0, pages 136-147, Czech National Bank.
    11. Leonardo Gambacorta & Andrés Murcia, 2019. "The impact of macroprudential policies and their interaction with monetary policy: an empirical analysis using credit registry data," IFC Bulletins chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Are post-crisis statistical initiatives completed?, volume 49, Bank for International Settlements.
    12. Giuliana Birindelli & Paola Ferretti & Marco Savioli, 2016. "Basel 3: Does One Size Really Fit All Banks' Business Models?," Working Paper series 16-20, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
    13. Bank for International Settlements, 2015. "Regulatory change and monetary policy," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 54, June.
    14. Janda, Karel & Kravtsov, Oleg, 2016. "Interdependencies between Leverage and Capital Ratios in the Central and Eastern European Banks," MPRA Paper 74560, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Annalisa Bucalossi & Antonio Scalia, 2016. "Leverage ratio, central bank operations and repo market," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 347, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    16. Ingo Fender & Ulf Lewrick, 2015. "Calibrating the leverage ratio," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, December.
    17. Lukas Pfeiffer & Libor Holub & Zdenek Pithart & Martin Hodula, 2017. "Leverage Ratio and its Impact on the Resilience of the Banking Sector and Efficiency of Macroprudential Policy," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 67(4), pages 277-299, August.
    18. Davis, E. Philip & Karim, Dilruba & Noel, Dennison, 2020. "The bank capital-competition-risk nexus – A global perspective," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    19. Stefan Behrendt, 2016. "Determinants of lending activity in the Euro area," Jena Economic Research Papers 2016-017, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.

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    Keywords

    leverage; capital ratios; procyclicality; global financial crisis;
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