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Colombia, por fuera las cadenas globales de valor: ¿causa o síntoma del bajo desempeño exportador?

Author

Listed:
  • Maria del Pilar Esguerra

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Sergio Parra Ulloa

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

Abstract

Las cadenas globales de valor (CGV) se definen como un rango amplio de actividades que llevan a cabo las firmas en sus procesos de producción y que van desde diseño, producción, mercadeo, distribución y servicio al cliente. Estas actividades pueden ser llevadas a cabo por la misma empresa en una determinada ubicación geográfica o por diferentes empresas en distintas ubicaciones. Este documento analiza el papel que está desempeñando Colombia dentro de las CGV y como ha sido su inserción en estas. Para ello se utilizaron estadísticas de la OECD para varios países, en donde se muestra la descomposición de los flujos de comercio y la participación del valor agregado interno y el que viene de otros países. Usando estos datos, se encuentra que Colombia no ha aprovechado suficientemente las CGV que hoy predominan en el comercio mundial. La oferta exportadora colombiana, excesivamente concentrada en productos primarios y en ventas de productos terminados a países vecinos, no favorece una mejor inserción del país en el contexto global a través de este tipo de cadenas. Otro factor fundamental que impide la inserción del país en estas cadenas es la persistencia de múltiples barreras tanto arancelarias como no arancelarias que protegen los distintos eslabones de la cadena productiva de los bienes finales que se fabrican en el país. **** The global value chains (GVC) are defined as a broad range of activities performed by firms in their production processes, ranging from design, production, marketing, distribution and customer service. These activities can be performed by the same company in a particular geographic zone or by different companies in different locations. The objective of this paper is to analyze the role that Colombia is playing within GVC and how has been its integration into these global chains. To do that, we use OECD’s statistics for several countries, where are shown the breakdown of trade flows and the share of domestic and foreign value added. Results from this data indicate that Colombia has not exploited properly its comparative advantages to join the GVCs. The Colombian export supply is excessively concentrated in primary products and sales of finished products to neighboring countries; fact that does not favor better integration of the country in the global context through such chains. Another key factor that prevents Colombia’s integration is the persistence of multiple tariff and non-tariff barriers protecting the links in the production chain of different final goods manufactured domestically.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria del Pilar Esguerra & Sergio Parra Ulloa, 2016. "Colombia, por fuera las cadenas globales de valor: ¿causa o síntoma del bajo desempeño exportador?," Borradores de Economia 966, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:966
    DOI: 10.32468/be.966
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.32468/be.966
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Martha Misas A. & María Teresa Ramírez G. & Luisa Silva, 2001. "Exportaciones no tradicionales en Colombia y sus determinantes," Revista ESPE - Ensayos Sobre Política Económica, Banco de la República - ESPE, vol. 19(39), pages 73-114, June.
    2. Cristina Constantinescu & Aaditya Mattoo & Michele Ruta, 2020. "The Global Trade Slowdown: Cyclical or Structural?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 34(1), pages 121-142.
    3. Hausmann, Ricardo & Klinger, Bailey, 2008. "Achieving Export-Led Growth in Colombia," Working Paper Series rwp08-063, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    4. Leonardo Villar & Pilar Esguerra, 2005. "Comercio Exterior Colombiano En El Siglo Xx," Borradores de Economia 358, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    5. Cristina Constantinescu & Aaditya Mattoo & Michele Ruta, 2020. "The Global Trade Slowdown: Cyclical or Structural?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 34(1), pages 121-142.
    6. Iader Giraldo Salazar, 2015. "Determinantes de las exportaciones manufactureras de Colombia: un estudio a partir de un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, vol. 45(2), pages 55-99, December.
    7. Juan José Echavarría & Mauricio Villamizar & colaboración Juanita González, 2006. "El Proceso Colombiano de Desindustrialización," Borradores de Economia 361, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    8. Baldwin,Richard E. & Francois,Joseph F. (ed.), 2011. "Dynamic Issues in Commercial Policy Analysis," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521159517, December.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Colombia; Comercio exterior; Cadenas Globales de Valor; Política comercial;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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