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Porqué Colombia no exporta más

Author

Listed:
  • Jorge García-García

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • David C. López-Valenzuela

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Enrique Montes-Uribe

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

Abstract

Este trabajo explica cómo los costos de comerciar (protección y otros costos) desestimulan las exportaciones manufactureras y por qué Colombia exporta mayoritariamente productos primarios. Para esto, además de una revisión de literatura y una descripción del desempeño exportador colombiano, se presenta una metodología que mide la protección total causada por el arancel y las medidas no arancelarias (MNA) y que permite generar una serie de la protección verdadera para el período 1950-2019. Los resultados muestran que el país no ha explotado su potencial exportador de manufacturas porque los incentivos para hacerlo han sido magros, un resultado de la alta protección a la producción local, de una infraestructura escasa y de unos servicios logísticos costosos. **** ABSTRACT: This paper explains how trade costs (protection and other costs) discourage manufacturing exports and why they are the main reason that Colombia’s main exports are basic commodities. The paper reviews the literature on exports in Colombia, shows how the volume and composition of exports evolved since 1950, proposes a methodology to calculate the protection to the manufacturing sector, estimates the total rate of protection to manufacturing and the domestic terms of trade between protected and export activities in manufacturing, examines the role of export subsidies in promoting exports, and discusses the feasibility of subsidizing exports to offset the negative impact of protection on the incentives to export. The paper concludes that Colombia has not exported more because of the poor incentives to do so, caused by the high protection to domestic production and high costs of logistic services which are explained partially by the country inadequate infrastructure.

Suggested Citation

  • Jorge García-García & David C. López-Valenzuela & Enrique Montes-Uribe, 2020. "Porqué Colombia no exporta más," Borradores de Economia 1139, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:1139
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.32468/be.1139
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    File URL: https://doi.org/10.32468/be.1139
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Costos de comerciar; Política comercial; Protección; Medidas no Arancelarias; Trade costs; Trade policy; Protection; Non-Tariff Measures;

    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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