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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

  • Christian Manuel Posso Suárez

    ()

En el período 1984-2005 se registró un incremento substancial en la desigualdad salarial en especial a partir de 1995, momento en el cual también se dio un crecimiento significativo de la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria. A su vez esta desigualdad fue más importante dentro del grupo de los más educados. Este documento expone nuevas alternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial en Colombia. Primero, se utiliza un método de descomposición para la desigualdad basado en una estimación condicional de la distribución de ingresos utilizando la regresión por percentiles; este método descompone los cambios en la distribución en tres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales. Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmente de los cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo 1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde se muestra que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de los residuales. La técnica aquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del método original de descomposición de Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (JMP, 1993). Segundo, utilizando la regresión por percentiles se intenta mostrar que los premios a la educación post-secundaria tienen un rol principal en la explicación del crecimiento de la desigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados, particularmente por una caída en el premio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para el periodo 1995-2005, el cual puede estar asociado a un problema de calidad de la educación.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 529.

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  9. Victor Chernozhukov & Ivan Fernandez-Val & Alfred Galichon, 2007. "Quantile and probability curves without crossing," CeMMAP working papers CWP10/07, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
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  16. David H. Autor & Lawrence F. Katz & Melissa S. Kearney, 2008. "Trends in U.S. Wage Inequality: Revising the Revisionists," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 300-323, May.
  17. Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
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  23. Nohora Y. Forero Ramírez & Manuel Ramírez Gómez, 2008. "Determinantes de los ingresos laborales de los graduados universitarios durante el período 2001-2004," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 004591, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
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