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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

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  • Christian Manuel Posso Suárez

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Abstract

En el período 1984-2005 se registró un incremento substancial en la desigualdad salarial en especial a partir de 1995, momento en el cual también se dio un crecimiento significativo de la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria. A su vez esta desigualdad fue más importante dentro del grupo de los más educados. Este documento expone nuevas alternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial en Colombia. Primero, se utiliza un método de descomposición para la desigualdad basado en una estimación condicional de la distribución de ingresos utilizando la regresión por percentiles; este método descompone los cambios en la distribución en tres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales. Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmente de los cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo 1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde se muestra que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de los residuales. La técnica aquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del método original de descomposición de Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (JMP, 1993). Segundo, utilizando la regresión por percentiles se intenta mostrar que los premios a la educación post-secundaria tienen un rol principal en la explicación del crecimiento de la desigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados, particularmente por una caída en el premio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para el periodo 1995-2005, el cual puede estar asociado a un problema de calidad de la educación.

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Manuel Posso Suárez, 2008. "Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria," Borradores de Economia 529, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:529
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "An approximation to the Informal-formal wage gap in Colombia 2008-2012," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 010990, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    2. Carlos Medina & Christian Manuel Posso Suárez, 2010. "Technical Change and Polarization of the Labor Market: Evidence for Brazil, Colombia and Mexico," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 007269, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    3. repec:col:000093:015839 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Leonardo Bonilla Mejía, 2009. "Determinantes de las diferencias regionales en la distribución del ingreso en Colombia, un ejercicio de microdescomposición," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE, vol. 27(59), pages 100-156, June.
    5. Ramirez, Francisco A., 2012. "Descomponiendo la Desigualdad Salarial en la República Dominicana: Análisis Empírico para el Periodo 2000-2011
      [Decomposing Wage Inequality in the Dominican Republic: Empirical Analysis for the Per
      ," MPRA Paper 51993, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Arlen Guarín & Sebastián Londoño & Carlos Medina & Julieth Parra & Christian Posso & Carlos Eduardo Vélez, 2016. "Estimating the Effect of Attending a Public versus a Private University in Colombia on Academic Achievement **** Una Estimación del Efecto sobre el Rendimiento Académico de Asistir a una Universidad P," Borradores de Economia 968, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    7. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "Informal-formal wage gaps in Colombia," Working Papers 301, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    8. Leonardo Bonilla Mejía, 2011. "Diferencias regionales en la distribución del ingreso en Colombia," REVISTA SOCIEDAD Y ECONOMIA - CIDSE, UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE - CIDSE, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Desigualdad de ingresos; Regresión por percentiles; Descomposición de ingresos; Retornos a la educación Classification JEL: C14; J31; I21.;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education

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