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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

  • Christian Manuel Posso

    ()

En el periodo 1984-2005 se registró un incremento sustancial en la desigualdad salarialque fue mucho más marcado a partir del año 1995, momento en el cual también se dioun crecimiento significativo de la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria.A su vez esta desigualdad fue más importante dentro del grupo de los más educados.Este documento expone nuevas alternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial enColombia. Inicialmente, se utiliza un método de descomposición para la desigualdadbasado en una estimación condicional de la distribución de ingresos utilizando laregresión por percentiles; este método descompone los cambios en la distribución entres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales.Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmentede los cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde semuestra que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de losresiduales. La técnica aquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del métodooriginal de descomposición de Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (1993). Posteriormente,utilizando la regresión por percentiles se intenta mostrar que los premios a la educaciónpost-secundaria tienen un rol principal en la explicación del crecimiento de ladesigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados, particularmente por una caída en elpremio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para el periodo 1995-2005.

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Article provided by UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE in its journal REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD.

Volume (Year): (2010)
Issue (Month): (December)
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:col:000090:008766
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