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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

  • Christian Manuel Posso

    ()

En el periodo 1984-2005 se registró un incremento sustancial en la desigualdad salarialque fue mucho más marcado a partir del año 1995, momento en el cual también se dioun crecimiento significativo de la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria.A su vez esta desigualdad fue más importante dentro del grupo de los más educados.Este documento expone nuevas alternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial enColombia. Inicialmente, se utiliza un método de descomposición para la desigualdadbasado en una estimación condicional de la distribución de ingresos utilizando laregresión por percentiles; este método descompone los cambios en la distribución entres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales.Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmentede los cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde semuestra que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de losresiduales. La técnica aquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del métodooriginal de descomposición de Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (1993). Posteriormente,utilizando la regresión por percentiles se intenta mostrar que los premios a la educaciónpost-secundaria tienen un rol principal en la explicación del crecimiento de ladesigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados, particularmente por una caída en elpremio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para el periodo 1995-2005.

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Article provided by UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE in its journal REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD.

Volume (Year): (2010)
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Handle: RePEc:col:000090:008766
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  9. Melly, Blaise, 2005. "Decomposition of differences in distribution using quantile regression," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 577-590, August.
  10. Orazio Attanasio & Pinelopi Goldberg & Nina Pavcnik, 2003. "Trade Reforms and Wage Inequiality in Colombia," NBER Working Papers 9830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. David H. Autor & Lawrence F. Katz & Melissa S. Kearney, 2005. "Rising Wage Inequality: The Role of Composition and Prices," NBER Working Papers 11628, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Carlos Felipe Prada, 2006. "¿Es rentable la decisión de estudiar en Colombia?," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE.
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  14. Katz, L.F. & Murphy, K.M., 1991. "Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1580, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
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  17. Jhon James Mora, 2003. "Sheepskin effects and screening in Colombia," Colombian Economic Journal, Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Economicas, Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Senora del Rosario, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad de los Andes, Universidad del Valle, Universidad Externado de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, December.
  18. Shorrocks, A F, 1982. "Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 193-211, January.
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  22. Christian Manuel Posso, 2010. "Calidad del empleo y segmentación laboral: un análisis para el mercado laboral colombiano 2001-2006," REVISTA DESARROLLO Y SOCIEDAD, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
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