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Sobre los Efectos Macroeconómicos de la Composición de la Deuda Pública en Colombia

  • Franz Hamann

    ()

  • Julián Pérez

    ()

  • Paulina Restrepo

    ()

Este artículo presenta un análisis cuantitativo del impacto macroeconómico de la forma como se financia el déficit fiscal en una economía pequeña y abierta. En particular, nos enfocamos en evaluar el impacto macroeconómico de una situación en la que, dado un nivel de déficit fiscal, el gobierno decide entre financiarlo con deuda doméstica o externa. Para este propósito empleamos un modelo de equilibrio general dinámico y estocástico para una economía pequeña y abierta. Al calibrar el modelo a la economía colombiana, encontramos que los efectos de una sustitución de deuda pública externa por interna dependen de qué tan permanente sea dicha sustitución. Una sustitución transitoria tiene efectos macroeconómicos despreciables, con excepción de su impacto sobre los flujos de capital privados ("efecto portafolio"). Es decir, un aumento de la deuda pública doméstica vis a vis una reducción en la externa, es balanceado por una reducción de los activos externos netos privados. Por el contrario, una sustitución permanente de un 10% de deuda externa por doméstica tiene efectos macroeconómicos transitorios pero considerables sobre la actividad real y los flujos de capital. Dicha recomposición genera un aumento en los activos externos netos de un 5% acompañada de una depreciación nominal cercana al 1 %. Aunque nuestros resultados son generales en ambientes con flexibilidad de precios, especulamos que pueden variar en presencia de incertidumbre acerca de la sostenibilidad de las finanzas públicas y/o rigideces nominales y reales.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 332.

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