The Leverage Cycle in Luxembourg?s Banking Sector
In this article we investigate the leverage cycle in Luxembourg?s banking sector using individual bank-level data for the period 2003 Q1 to 2010 Q1. We discuss the mechanics behind the leverage cycle in Luxembourg?s banks and show that these banks predominantly adjust leverage by changing both loans and deposits. One of our findings is that Luxembourg?s banks have a procyclical leverage. This procyclicality is not due to marking-to-market but because Luxembourg?s banks are liquidity providers to the EU banking sector. This also explains the different evolution of leverage compared to the US commercial banks (Adrian and Shin ) that, even though their balance sheet structure is similar to that of the Luxembourgish banks, target a constant leverage. To further understand what drives leverage in Luxembourg?s banks we empirically investigate the role of bank characteristics as well as real, financial and expectation variables that proxy for macroeconomic conditions in the pre-crisis and crisis period. We find that off-balance sheet exposures have different effects in the pre-crisis and crisis period, and that the share of liquid assets in the portfolio only affects the amount of security holdings. In terms of macroeconomic variables, we find that the Euribor-OIS spread is a significant driver of the build-up in leverage in the pre-crisis period. The reason is that most banks in Luxembourg are either branches or subsidiaries. This, firstly, makes leverage a less relevant indicator of riskiness for investors. Secondly, it implies that in times of liquidity shortages, mother companies or groups demand further liquidity from their branch or subsidiary. The downturn in leverage during the crisis can be accredited to reductions in expectations, which we proxy by an economic sentiment indicator. It can also be explained by increasing bond prices which induce depositors to shift their funds from bank deposits into bonds. We find no important role for GDP growth.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as: What are the bank-specific and macroeconomic drivers of banks? leverage? Evidence from Luxembourg, Empirical Economics, 2013, 45(2): 905-928|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.bcl.lu/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995.
"Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models,"
104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995.
"Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Adrian, Tobias & Shin, Hyun Song, 2010.
"Liquidity and leverage,"
Journal of Financial Intermediation,
Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 418-437, July.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2008.
"Is the 2007 US Sub-prime Financial Crisis So Different? An International Historical Comparison,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 339-44, May.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Is the 2007 U.S. Sub-Prime Financial Crisis So Different? An International Historical Comparison," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 56(3), pages 291-299, September.
- Reinhart, Carmen M. & Rogoff, Kenneth S., 2008. "Is the 2007 US Sub-Prime Financial Crisis So Different? An International Historical Comparison," Scholarly Articles 11129156, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2008. "Is the 2007 U.S. Sub-Prime Financial Crisis So Different? An International Historical Comparison," NBER Working Papers 13761, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markus K. Brunnermeier, 2009. "Deciphering the Liquidity and Credit Crunch 2007-2008," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 77-100, Winter.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bcl:bclwop:bclwp066. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.