Linking Reduced Deforestation and a Global Carbon Market: Impacts on Costs, Financial Flows, and Technological Innovation
Discussions of tropical deforestation are currently at the forefront of climate change policy negotiations at national, regional, and international levels. This paper analyzes the effects of linking Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) to a global market for greenhouse gas emission reductions. We supplement a global climate-energy-economy model with alternative cost estimates for reducing deforestation emissions in order to examine a global program for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at 550 ppmv of CO2 equivalent. Introducing REDD reduces global forestry emissions through 2050 by 20-22% in the Brazil-only case and by 64-88% in the global REDD scenario. At the same time, REDD lowers the total costs of the climate policy by an estimated 10-25% depending on which tropical countries participate and whether the ÃƒÂ¢Ã‚â‚¬Ã‚Å“bankingÃƒÂ¢Ã‚â‚¬Ã‚Â of excess credits for use in future periods is allowed. As a result, REDD could enable additional reductions of at least 20 ppmv of CO2-equivalent concentrations with no added costs compared to an energy-sector only policy. The cost savings from REDD are magnified if banking is allowed and there is a need to increase the stringency of global climate policy in the future in response, for example, to new scientific information. Results also indicate that REDD will decrease carbon prices in 2050 by 8-23% with banking and 11-26% without banking. While developing regions, particularly Latin America, gain the value of REDD opportunities, the decrease in the carbon price keeps the value of international carbon market flows relatively stable despite an increase in volumes transacted. We also estimate that REDD generally reduces the total portfolio of investments and research and development of new energy technologies by 1-10%. However, due to impacts on the relative prices of different fossil fuels, REDD has a slight positive estimated effect on investments in coal-related technologies (IGCC and CCS) as well as, in some cases, non-electric energy R&D. This research confirms that integrating REDD into global carbon markets can provide powerful incentives for the preservation of tropical forests while lowering the costs of global climate change protection and providing valuable policy flexibility.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Brent Sohngen and Roger Sedjo, 2006. "Carbon Sequestration in Global Forests Under Different Carbon Price Regimes," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 109-126.
- Brian C. Murray & Richard G. Newell & William A. Pizer, 2009.
"Balancing Cost and Emissions Certainty: An Allowance Reserve for Cap-and-Trade,"
Review of Environmental Economics and Policy,
Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 3(1), pages 84-103, Winter.
- Murray, Brian C. & Newell, Richard G. & Pizer, William A., 2008. "Balancing Cost and Emissions Certainty: An Allowance Reserve for Cap-and-Trade," Discussion Papers dp-08-24, Resources For the Future.
- Brian C. Murray & Richard G. Newell & William A. Pizer, 2008. "Balancing Cost and Emissions Certainty: An Allowance Reserve for Cap-and-Trade," NBER Working Papers 14258, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Valentina Bosetti & Carlo Carraro & Romain Duval & Alessandra Sgobbi & Massimo Tavoni, 2009.
"The Role of R&D and Technology Diffusion in Climate Change Mitigation: New Perspectives Using the WITCH Model,"
OECD Economics Department Working Papers
664, OECD Publishing.
- Valentina Bosetti & Carlo Carraro & Romain Duval & Alessandra Sgobbi & Massimo Tavoni, 2009. "The Role of R&D and Technology Diffusion in Climate Change Mitigation: New Perspectives Using the Witch Model," Working Papers 2009.14, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Tavoni, Massimo & Sohngen, Brent & Bosetti, Valentina, 2007.
"Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate,"
Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5346-5353, November.
- Massimo Tavoni & Valentina Bosetti & Brent Sohngen, 2007. "Forestry and the Carbon Market Response to Stabilize Climate," Working Papers 2007.15, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bcc:wpaper:2009-01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sergio Faria)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.