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Searching for the Natural Rate of Unemployment in a Large Relative Price Shocks' Economy: the Brazilian Case

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  • Tito Nícias Teixeira da Silva Filho

Abstract

This paper contributes to fill the large existing gap in the literature on the Brazilian natural rate of unemployment. It reveals not only that the correlation between inflation and unemployment has changed radically since the stabilisation of the economy but, more surprisingly, that it has become positive in the recent past. In other words, there has apparently been no trade-off between inflation and unemployment. However, this fact is due to – and highlights – the paramount importance of supply shocks in recent inflation dynamics in Brazil. The paper then shows that the exchange rate has been the major source of shocks to inflation, even though it is not enough to explain the magnitude and persistence of those shocks. Part of the answer comes from the large and wide effects produced by privatisation on the price dynamics in Brazil. The evidence presented here suggests that the Brazilian natural rate of unemployment has been constant since 1996. Despite the high degree of uncertainty involved in natural rate estimations, point estimates seem to lie somewhere between the 7.4%–8.5% range. The paper also sheds light on why real interest rates have been so high for extended periods of time in Brazil, a feature that has puzzled many economists. Finally, it calls to attention that one important core inflation measure in Brazil has not been able to capture underlying inflation properly and, therefore, has to be used with caution.

Suggested Citation

  • Tito Nícias Teixeira da Silva Filho, 2008. "Searching for the Natural Rate of Unemployment in a Large Relative Price Shocks' Economy: the Brazilian Case," Working Papers Series 163, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:bcb:wpaper:163
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    File URL: http://www.bcb.gov.br/pec/wps/ingl/wps163.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jurgen A. Doornik & Henrik Hansen, 2008. "An Omnibus Test for Univariate and Multivariate Normality," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(s1), pages 927-939, December.
    2. Gruen, David & Pagan, Adrian & Thompson, Christopher, 1999. "The Phillips curve in Australia," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 223-258, October.
    3. Laurence Ball & N. Gregory Mankiw, 2002. "The NAIRU in Theory and Practice," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(4), pages 115-136, Fall.
    4. Janine Aron & John Muellbauer & B. Smit, 2004. "A Structural Model of the Inflation Process in South Africa," CSAE Working Paper Series 2004-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tito Nícias Teixeira da Silva Filho & Francisco Marcos Rodrigues Figueiredo, 2014. "A Volatility and Persistence-Based Core Inflation," Working Papers Series 367, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    2. Arnildo Da Silva Correa & Sergio Afonso Lago Alves, 2016. "A Tale Of Three Gaps: Unemployment, Capacity Utilization And Output," Anais do XLII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 42nd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 031, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    3. da Silva Filho, Tito Nícias Teixeira & Figueiredo, Francisco Marcos Rodrigues, 2011. "Has Core Inflation Been Doing a Good Job in Brazil?," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 65(2), June.
    4. Schechtman, Ricardo & Gaglianone, Wagner Piazza, 2012. "Macro stress testing of credit risk focused on the tails," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 174-192.

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