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The Exchange Rate Regime and Canada's Monetary Order

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  • Laidler, David

Abstract

It is a mistake to debate the merits of alternative exchange rate regimes for Canada independently of other features of the monetary order. A coherent order requires a well-defined goal for monetary policy, one that the authorities are capable of achieving, and that anchors private sector expectations. For it to be liberal, the relevant authorities should be accountable to the electorate for their performance. These criteria are applied in comparing the merits of: (i) Canada’s current monetary order, based on inflation targets and a flexible exchange rate; (ii) a North American monetary union; (iii) a Canadian currency board; (iv) a legislatively fixed exchange rate; and (v) an adjustably pegged exchange rate. The paper concludes that the current order is well-conceived because cross-border labour mobility is limited, Canadian money wages and prices are sticky, and the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States is subject to real shocks. Among the fixed exchange rate options, all of which are inferior to current arrangements, a full monetary union is judged the most economically viable, though politically illiberal, while a pegged rate seems to provide an untrustworthy basis for a coherent monetary order.

Suggested Citation

  • Laidler, David, 1999. "The Exchange Rate Regime and Canada's Monetary Order," Staff Working Papers 99-7, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:99-7
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-1176, December.
    3. Baldwin, John R., 1996. "Productivity Growth, Plant Turnover and Restructuring in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1995087e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Liliane Karlinger, 2002. "The Impact of Common Currencies on Financial Markets: A Literature Review and Evidence from the Euro Area," Staff Working Papers 02-35, Bank of Canada.
    2. Bailliu, Jeannine & Lafrance, Robert & Perrault, Jean-Francois, 2003. "Does Exchange Rate Policy Matter for Growth?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 381-414, Winter.
    3. Paul Jenkins & Gordon Thiessen, 2012. "Reducing the Potential for Future Financial Crises: A Framework for Macro-Prudential Policy in Canada," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, issue 351, May.
    4. David Amirault & Brian O'Reilly, 2001. "The Zero Bound on Nominal Interest Rates: How Important Is It?," Staff Working Papers 01-6, Bank of Canada.
    5. Michal Jurek & Pawel Marszalek, 2015. "Policy alternatives for the relationship between ECB monetary and financial policies and new member states," Working papers wpaper112, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    6. Osakwe, Patrick N. & Schembri, Lawrence L., 2002. "Real effects of collapsing exchange rate regimes: an application to Mexico," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 299-325, August.
    7. Fabio Ghironi, 2000. "Alternative Monetary Rules for a Small Open Economy: The Case of Canada," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 466, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 30 Oct 2000.
    8. Ronald I. McKinnon, 1999. "Limiting moral hazard and reducing risk in international capital flows: the choice of an exchange-rate regime," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sep.
    9. Laidler, David, 2005. "Inflation targets versus international monetary integration: a Canadian perspective," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 35-64, March.
    10. Carr, Jack L. & Floyd, John E., 2002. "Real and monetary shocks to the Canadian dollar: Do Canada and the United States form an optimal currency area?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 21-39, May.
    11. Christopher Ragan, 2012. "Financial Stability: The Next Frontier for Canadian Monetary Policy," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, issue 338, January.
    12. Chandranath Amarasekara & George J. Bratsiotis, 2012. "Monetary policy and real wage cyclicality," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(33), pages 4391-4408, November.
    13. Willem H. Buiter, 1999. "The EMU and the NAMU: What is the Case for North American Monetary Union?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(3), pages 285-305, September.
    14. Vivek H. Dehejia & Nicholas Rowe, 1999. "Macroeconomic Stabilisation: Fixed Exchange Rates vs Inflation Targeting vs Price Level Targeting," Carleton Economic Papers 99-15, Carleton University, Department of Economics, revised 22 Mar 2000.
    15. Murray, John & Schembri, Lawrence & St-Amant, Pierre, 2003. "Revisiting the case for flexible exchange rates in North America," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 207-240, August.
    16. Jack L. Carr & John E. Floyd, 2001. "Real and Monetary Shocks to the Canadian Dollar: Do Canada and the U.S Form an Optimal Currency Area?," Working Papers floyd-01-02, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    17. von Furstenberg, George M., 2006. "Mexico versus Canada: Stability benefits from making common currency with USD?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 65-78, March.
    18. Heliodoro Temprano Arroyo, 2002. "Latin America's integration processes in the light of the EU's experience with EMU," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 173, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    19. David Laidler, 1999. "Canada's Exchange Rate Options," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(3), pages 324-332, September.
    20. Murray, John, 2000. "Why Canada needs a flexible exchange rate," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 41-60, August.
    21. Lafrance, Robert & St-Amant, Pierre, 2000. "Les zones monétaires optimales," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 76(4), pages 577-612, décembre.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Exchange rates; Monetary policy framework;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange

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