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Inferential Expectations

  • Gordon D. Menzies

    ()

  • Daniel John Zizzo

We propose that the formation of beliefs be treated as statistical hypothesis tests, and we label such beliefs inferential expectations. If a belief is overturned through the build-up of evidence, agents are assumed to switch to the rational expectation. Rational expectations are shown to be a special (limiting) case of inferential expectations, with the test size alpha becoming a metric for rationality. We present the results of an experiment that supports inferential expectations. When inferential expectations are built into a Dornbusch-style model of the exchange rate, regression tests of Uncovered Interest Parity and the rational expectations version of the term structure both display downward bias in the slope coefficient.

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Paper provided by Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University in its series CAMA Working Papers with number 2005-12.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:een:camaaa:2005-12
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  2. Kydland, Finn E & Prescott, Edward C, 1982. "Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1345-70, November.
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  10. Gordon Menzies & Daniel John Zizzo, 2005. "Inferential Expectations," Research Paper Series 159, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
  11. Zellner, Arnold, 1988. "Bayesian analysis in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 27-50, January.
  12. Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier & Tornell, Aaron, 2004. "Exchange rate puzzles and distorted beliefs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 303-333, December.
  13. Rotheli, Tobias F., 1998. "Pattern recognition and procedurally rational expectations," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 71-90, September.
  14. Gruen, David W R & Menzies, Gordon D, 1995. "Forward Discount Bias: Is It Near-Rationality in the Foreign Exchange Market?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 71(213), pages 157-66, June.
  15. Akerlof, George A & Yellen, Janet L, 1985. "Can Small Deviations from Rationality Make Significant Differences to Economic Equilibria?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(4), pages 708-20, September.
  16. Mankiw, N. Gregory & Reis, Ricardo, 2002. "Sticky Information Versus Sticky Prices: A Proposal to Replace the New Keynesian Phillips Curve," Scholarly Articles 3415324, Harvard University Department of Economics.
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  18. Swenson, Charles W., 1997. "Rational expectations and tax policy: Experimental market evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 433-455, March.
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  20. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-76, December.
  21. Rappoport, Peter, 1985. "Unfalsified Expectations: An Alternative Perspective on Modelling Expectations in Macroeconomics," Working Papers 85-16, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
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  25. Frankel, Jeffrey A & Froot, Kenneth A, 1987. "Using Survey Data to Test Standard Propositions Regarding Exchange Rate Expectations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(1), pages 133-53, March.
  26. Clemens J. M. Kool & Daniel L. Thornton, 2003. "A note on the expectations hypothesis at the founding of the Fed," Working Papers 2000-004, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  27. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
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  29. Michael Woodford, 1990. "Self-Fulfilling Expectations and Fluctuations in Aggregate Demand," NBER Working Papers 3361, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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