A Measure of Underlying Inflation in the United States
A monetary authority with the primary objective of price stability has to distinguish between temporary price shocks and persistent shocks to the rate of inflation. A measure of underlying inflation, therefore, has an important role to play as a guideline for monetary policy. In this paper, a measure of underlying inflation in the United States is obtained using a structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) methodology. The assumption that movements in measured inflation are the result of (a) one-time shocks to prices arising from supply-side developments and (b) persistent shocks to the inflation rate arising from demand-side developments provides a set of long-run restrictions to identify the structural innovations to the consumer price inflation rate. The model is estimated with monthly data and includes consumer prices (CPI), capacity utilization (CAPUT), producer prices of finished consumer goods (PPI), and import prices (IMP). The evidence reported in this paper suggests that measured inflation in the United States was below its underlying trend rate in 1994 and 1995, a period when inflationary pressures remained subdued, despite above-potential growth and labour market tightness. The evidence also supports the view that temporary factors have helped to contain inflationary tendencies in recent years. Past shocks should exert some further downward pressure on the inflation rate. Moreover, we find that the tightening in 199495 coincided with an upward trend in the underlying inflation rate, while measured inflation was still trending downward. The finding supports the view that the Federal Reserve reacts to movements in the underlying trend inflation rate.
|Date of creation:||1997|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 234 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G9, Canada|
Phone: 613 782-8845
Fax: 613 782-8874
Web page: http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca/
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrews, Donald W K, 1993.
"Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point,"
Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-56, July.
- Donald W.K. Andrews, 1990. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 943, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Mary G. Finn, 1996. "A theory of the capacity utilization/inflation relationship," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Sum, pages 67-86.
- Peter C.B. Phillips, 1995.
"Impulse Response and Forecast Error Variance Asymptotics in Nonstationary VAR's,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1102, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Phillips, Peter C. B., 1998. "Impulse response and forecast error variance asymptotics in nonstationary VARs," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1-2), pages 21-56.
- Olivier Jean Blanchard & Danny Quah, 1988.
"The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbances,"
NBER Working Papers
2737, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Quah, Danny, 1989. "The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbances," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 655-73, September.
- Olivier Jean Blanchard & Danny Quah, 1988. "The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand and Supply Disturbance," Working papers 497, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Jordi Galí, 1992. "How Well Does The IS-LM Model Fit Postwar U. S. Data?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 709-738.
- Carl Bonham, 1990.
"Correct Cointegration Tests of the Long Run Relationship Between Nominal Interest and Inflation,"
199026, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
- Carl Bonham, 1991. "Correct Cointegration Tests of the Long Run Relationship Between Nominal Interest and Inflation," Working Papers 199104, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
- Michael F. Bryan & Stephen G. Cecchetti, 1993.
"Measuring Core Inflation,"
NBER Working Papers
4303, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Phillips, P.C.B., 1986.
"Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series Regression,"
Cahiers de recherche
8633, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986.
"A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
- Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
- James G. MacKinnon, 2010.
"Critical Values for Cointegration Tests,"
1227, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Alain DeSerres & Alain Guay, 1995. "Selection of the Truncation Lag in Structural VARs (or VECMs) with Long-Run Restrictions," Econometrics 9510001, EconWPA.
- Matthew D. Shapiro & Mark W. Watson, 1988.
"Sources of Business Cycle Fluctuations,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
870, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum, 1991. "Identification and the Liquidity Effect of a Monetary Policy Shock," NBER Working Papers 3920, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015.
"Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Quah, Danny & Vahey, Shaun P, 1995.
"Measuring Core Inflation?,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(432), pages 1130-44, September.
- Danny Quah & Danny Quah & Shaun P. Vahey, 1995. "Measuring Core Inflation," CEP Discussion Papers dp0254, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Danny Quah & Shaun Vahey, 1995. "Measuring Core Inflation," Bank of England working papers 31, Bank of England.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS programs to replicate Quah and Vahey core inflation estimation," Statistical Software Components RTZ00139, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Quah, Danny, 1995. "Measuring Core Inflation," CEPR Discussion Papers 1153, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Robert G. Valletta, 1996. "Has job security in the U.S. declined?," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue feb16.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1991.
"A simple estimator of cointegrating vectors in higher order integrated systems,"
Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues
91-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
- Gordon, David B & Leeper, Eric M, 1994.
"The Dynamic Impacts of Monetary Policy: An Exercise in Tentative Identification,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1228-47, December.
- David B. Gordon & Eric M. Leeper, 1993. "The dynamic impacts of monetary policy: an exercise in tentative identification," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 93-5, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- David B. Gordon & Eric M. Leeper, 1992. "The dynamic impacts of monetary policy: an exercise in tentative identification," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 92-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Schwert, G. William, 1987. "Effects of model specification on tests for unit roots in macroeconomic data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 73-103, July.
- Zsolt Becsi, 1994. "Indicators of the general price level and inflation," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q IV, pages 27-39.
- Bernanke, Ben S., 1986.
"Alternative explanations of the money-income correlation,"
Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy,
Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 49-99, January.
- Ben S. Bernanke, 1986. "Alternative Explanations of the Money-Income Correlation," NBER Working Papers 1842, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alain Paquet, 1994. "A Guide to Applied Modern Macroeconometrics," Documents techniques CREFE / CREFE Technical Papers 1, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:97-20. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.