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The Canadian Phillips Curve and Regime Shifting

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  • Frédérick Demers

Abstract

Phillips curves are generally estimated under the assumption of linearity and parameter constancy. Linear models of inflation, however, have recently been criticized for their poor forecasting performance. The author investigates the linearity and constancy assumptions of a standard reduced-form Phillips curve for Canada using two different techniques: (i) the methodology proposed by Bai and Perron (1998), which allows for an unknown number of breaks at unknown dates, and (ii) a three-regimes Markov-switching regression model. Both methodologies strongly reject the linearity and parameter constancy assumptions. The author finds that the output-inflation relationship does not hold under the current monetary policy of inflation targeting, with its low and stable inflation. Since the inflation-control targets were adopted, inflation expectations appear to be more forward looking and well anchored at 2 per cent, the official target rate. Core inflation exhibits very low persistence and there do not appear to be significant asymmetries in the inflation response to output-gap shocks within regimes. Generalized impulse responses are computed to illustrate some properties of the Markov-switching Phillips curve model.

Suggested Citation

  • Frédérick Demers, 2003. "The Canadian Phillips Curve and Regime Shifting," Staff Working Papers 03-32, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:03-32
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Gabriele Galati & William R. Melick, 2006. "The evolving inflation process: an overview," BIS Working Papers 196, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Islam , Faridul & Shabbir, Muhammad Shahbaz, 2012. "Phillips Curve in a Small Open Economy: A Time Series Exploration of North Cyprus," Bangladesh Development Studies, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), vol. 35(4), pages 113-130, December.
    3. Paul G. Egan & Anthony J. Leddin, 2016. "Examining Monetary Policy Transmission in the People's Republic of China–Structural Change Models with a Monetary Policy Index," Asian Development Review, MIT Press, vol. 33(1), pages 74-110, March.
    4. Frédérick Demers & Annie De Champlain, 2005. "Forecasting Core Inflation in Canada: Should We Forecast the Aggregate or the Components?," Staff Working Papers 05-44, Bank of Canada.
    5. Arabinda Basistha, 2007. "Trend-cycle correlation, drift break and the estimation of trend and cycle in Canadian GDP," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(2), pages 584-606, May.
    6. Mikael Khan & Louis Morel & Patrick Sabourin, 2013. "The Common Component of CPI: An Alternative Measure of Underlying Inflation for Canada," Staff Working Papers 13-35, Bank of Canada.
    7. André Binette & Sylvain Martel, 2005. "Inflation and Relative Price Dispersion in Canada: An Empirical Assessment," Staff Working Papers 05-28, Bank of Canada.
    8. Marc-André Gosselin & René Lalonde, 2006. "An Eclectic Approach to Estimating U.S. Potential GDP," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 951-975, November.
    9. Jamie Armour, 2006. "An Evaluation of Core Inflation Measures," Staff Working Papers 06-10, Bank of Canada.
    10. repec:bth:wpaper:2004-03 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Robert Amano & Steve Ambler & Nooman Rebei, 2007. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Nonzero Trend Inflation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(7), pages 1821-1838, October.
    12. Akhter Faroque & Ryan Minor, 2009. "Inflation regimes and the stability of the pass-through of wages to consumer prices in Canada," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 1003-1017.
    13. Calista Cheung & Frédérick Demers, 2007. "Evaluating Forecasts from Factor Models for Canadian GDP Growth and Core Inflation," Staff Working Papers 07-8, Bank of Canada.
    14. Mihaela Simionescu, 2014. "Testing The Existence And Stability Of Phillips Curve In Romania," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 10(1), pages 67-74.
    15. Kevin Clinton, 2006. "Core inflation at the Bank of Canada: A critique," Working Papers 1077, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    16. Clark, Todd E. & McCracken, Michael W., 2006. "The Predictive Content of the Output Gap for Inflation: Resolving In-Sample and Out-of-Sample Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(5), pages 1127-1148, August.
    17. William Gatt, 2016. "Time variation, asymmetry and threshold effect in Malta's Phillips curve," CBM Working Papers WP/02/2016, Central Bank of Malta.
    18. Jean-Philippe Cayen & Marc-André Gosselin & Sharon Kozicki, 2009. "Estimating DSGE-Model-Consistent Trends for Use in Forecasting," Staff Working Papers 09-35, Bank of Canada.
    19. Christensen, Ian & Frédéric Dion & Christopher Reid, 2004. "Real Return Bonds, Inflation Expectations, and the Break-Even Inflation Rate," Staff Working Papers 04-43, Bank of Canada.
    20. Olivier Gervais & Marc-André Gosselin, 2014. "Analyzing and Forecasting the Canadian Economy through the LENS Model," Technical Reports 102, Bank of Canada.
    21. David Jamieson Bolder & Simon Deeley, 2011. "The Canadian Debt-Strategy Model: An Overview of the Principal Elements," Discussion Papers 11-3, Bank of Canada.
    22. David Bolder & Shudan Liu, 2007. "Examining Simple Joint Macroeconomic and Term-Structure Models: A Practitioner's Perspective," Staff Working Papers 07-49, Bank of Canada.
    23. Meh, Césaire A. & Quadrini, Vincenzo & Terajima, Yaz, 2015. "Limited Nominal Indexation of Optimal Financial Contracts," CEPR Discussion Papers 10330, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    24. Owen Grech & Noel Rapa, 2016. "STREAM: A structural macro-econometric model of the Maltese economy," CBM Working Papers WP/01/2016, Central Bank of Malta.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation

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