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Monge-Kantorovich Depth, Quantiles, Ranks, and Signs


  • Victor Chernozhukov
  • Alfred Galichon
  • Marc Hallin
  • Marc Henry


We propose new concepts of statistical depth, multivariate quantiles, ranks and signs, based on canonical transportation maps between a distribution of interest on $R^d$ and a reference distribution on the $d$-dimensional unit ball. The new depth concept, called Monge-Kantorovich depth, specializes to halfspace depth in the case of spherical distributions, but, for more general distributions, differs from the latter in the ability for its contours to account for non convex features of the distribution of interest. We propose empirical counterparts to the population versions of those Monge-Kantorovich depth contours, quantiles, ranks and signs, and show their consistency by establishing a uniform convergence property for empirical transport maps, which is of independent interest.

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  • Victor Chernozhukov & Alfred Galichon & Marc Hallin & Marc Henry, 2014. "Monge-Kantorovich Depth, Quantiles, Ranks, and Signs," Papers 1412.8434,, revised Sep 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1412.8434

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alfred Galichon & Marc Henry, 2012. "Dual theory of choice under multivariate risks," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/5rkqqmvrn4t, Sciences Po.
    2. Alfred Galichon & Ivar Ekeland & Marc Henry, 2009. "Comonotonic measures of multivariates risks," Working Papers hal-00401828, HAL.
    3. Hassairi, Abdelhamid & Regaieg, Ons, 2008. "On the Tukey depth of a continuous probability distribution," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(15), pages 2308-2313, October.
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    6. Marc Hallin & Davy Paindaveine & Miroslav Siman, 2008. "Multivariate quantiles and multiple-output regression quantiles: from L1 optimization to halfspace depth," Working Papers ECARES 2008_042, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    7. Hallin, M. & Werker, B.J.M., 2003. "Semiparametric efficiency, distribution-freeness and invariance," Other publications TiSEM fe20db00-786a-4261-9999-6, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    8. Kenneth L. Judd, 1998. "Numerical Methods in Economics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262100711, December.
    9. Davy Paindaveine & Miroslav Šiman, 2012. "Computing multiple-output regression quantile regions from projection quantiles," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 29-49, March.
    10. Oja, Hannu, 1983. "Descriptive statistics for multivariate distributions," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(6), pages 327-332, October.
    11. Anil K. Ghosh & Probal Chaudhuri, 2005. "On Maximum Depth and Related Classifiers," Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Danish Society for Theoretical Statistics;Finnish Statistical Society;Norwegian Statistical Association;Swedish Statistical Association, vol. 32(2), pages 327-350, June.
    12. K. Mosler, 2003. "Central regions and dependency," Econometrics 0309004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Koshevoy, Gleb A., 2002. "The Tukey Depth Characterizes the Atomic Measure," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 360-364, November.
    14. Robert Serfling, 2002. "Quantile functions for multivariate analysis: approaches and applications," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 56(2), pages 214-232, May.
    15. Hallin, Marc & Paindaveine, Davy, 2005. "Affine-invariant aligned rank tests for the multivariate general linear model with VARMA errors," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 122-163, March.
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    17. Davy Paindaveine & Germain Van bever, 2013. "From Depth to Local Depth: A Focus on Centrality," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 108(503), pages 1105-1119, September.
    18. Cuesta-Albertos, J.A. & Nieto-Reyes, A., 2008. "The random Tukey depth," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(11), pages 4979-4988, July.
    19. Paindaveine, Davy & Šiman, Miroslav, 2012. "Computing multiple-output regression quantile regions," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 840-853.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hamel, Andreas H. & Kostner, Daniel, 2018. "Cone distribution functions and quantiles for multivariate random variables," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 97-113.
    2. Marc Hallin & Davide La Vecchia & H Liu, 2019. "Center-Outward R-Estimation for Semiparametric VARMA Models," Working Papers ECARES 2019-25, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    3. Eustasio Del Barrio & Juan Cuesta Albertos & Marc Hallin & Carlos Matran, 2018. "Smooth Cyclically Monotone Interpolation and Empirical Center-Outward Distribution Functions," Working Papers ECARES 2018-15, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Kotík, Lukáš & Hlubinka, Daniel, 2017. "A weighted localization of halfspace depth and its properties," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 53-69.
    5. Manuel Arellano & Stephane Bonhomme, 2019. "Recovering Latent Variables by Matching," Papers 1912.13081,
    6. Florian Gunsilius, 2018. "Point-identification in multivariate nonseparable triangular models," Papers 1806.09680,
    7. Davy Paindaveine & Germain Van Bever, 2017. "Halfspace Depths for Scatter, Concentration and Shape Matrices," Working Papers ECARES ECARES 2017-19, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    8. Florian Gunsilius & Susanne M. Schennach, 2019. "Independent nonlinear component analysis," CeMMAP working papers CWP46/19, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    9. Marc Hallin, 2018. "From Mahalanobis to Bregman via Monge and Kantorovich towards a “General Generalised Distance”," Working Papers ECARES 2018-12, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.

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