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Mitigating Hypothetical Bias in Stated Preference Data: Evidence from Sports Tourism

  • John Whitehead
  • Melissa S. Weddell
  • Pete Groothuis

One of the major criticisms of stated preference data is hypothetical bias. Using a unique data set of both stated and actual behavior we test for hypothetical bias of stated preference survey responses. We consider whether respondents tend to overstate their participatory sporting event behavior ex ante when compared to their actual behavior at different registration fees. We find that behavioral intentions accurately predicts actual behavior at a middle level of respondent certainty, over predicts actual behavior at a lower level of certainty and under predicts behavior at a higher level of certainty. This suggests that respondent uncertainty corrections can be used to mitigate hypothetical bias. Stated preference data can be used better understand actual behavior in situations where no data exist. Key Words: Hypothetical bias, stated preference data

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File URL: http://econ.appstate.edu/RePEc/pdf/wp1406.pdf
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, Appalachian State University in its series Working Papers with number 14-06.

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Date of creation: 2014
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:apl:wpaper:14-06
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Web page: http://www.business.appstate.edu/departments/economics/
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  1. John C. Whitehead & Subhrendu K. Pattanayak & George L. Van Houtven & Brett R. Gelso, 2008. "Combining Revealed And Stated Preference Data To Estimate The Nonmarket Value Of Ecological Services: An Assessment Of The State Of The Science," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 872-908, December.
  2. Jerry Hausman, 2012. "Contingent Valuation: From Dubious to Hopeless," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(4), pages 43-56, Fall.
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  4. Karen Blumenschein & GlennC. Blomquist & Magnus Johannesson & Nancy Horn & Patricia Freeman, 2008. "Eliciting Willingness to Pay Without Bias: Evidence from a Field Experiment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(525), pages 114-137, 01.
  5. Timothy C. Haab & Matthew G. Interis & Daniel R. Petrolia & John C. Whitehead, 2013. "From Hopeless to Curious? Thoughts on Hausman’s “Dubious to Hopeless” Critique of Contingent Valuation," Working Papers 13-07, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
  6. Patricia Champ & Richard Bishop, 2001. "Donation Payment Mechanisms and Contingent Valuation: An Empirical Study of Hypothetical Bias," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 19(4), pages 383-402, August.
  7. W. Douglass Shaw, 2002. "Testing the Validity of Contingent Behavior Trip Responses," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(2), pages 401-414.
  8. Vossler, Christian A. & Watson, Sharon B., 2013. "Understanding the consequences of consequentiality: Testing the validity of stated preferences in the field," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 137-147.
  9. Richard T. Carson, 2012. "Contingent Valuation: A Practical Alternative When Prices Aren't Available," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(4), pages 27-42, Fall.
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  11. John Loomis, 2011. "What'S To Know About Hypothetical Bias In Stated Preference Valuation Studies?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 363-370, 04.
  12. John C. Whitehead & Bruce K. Johnson & Daniel S. Mason & Gordon J. Walker, 2013. "Consumption Benefits Of National Hockey League Game Trips Estimated From Revealed And Stated Preference Demand Data," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 1012-1025, 01.
  13. John Loomis, 1993. "An investigation into the reliability of intended visitation behavior," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 3(2), pages 183-191, April.
  14. John C. Whitehead & Douglas Noonan & Elizabeth Marquardt, 2012. "Criterion and Predictive Validity of Revealed and Stated Preference Data: The Case of Music Concert Demand," Working Papers 12-05, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
  15. repec:ner:tilbur:urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4628501 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Ann L. Owen & Julio Videras & Stephen Wu, 2012. "More Information Is Not Always Better: The Case Of Voluntary Provision Of Environmental Quality," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 50(3), pages 585-603, 07.
  17. Bruce K. Johnson & Michael J. Mondello & John C. Whitehead, 2006. "Contingent Valuation of Sports," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 7(3), pages 267-288, August.
  18. Joseph Little & Robert Berrens, 2004. "Explaining Disparities between Actual and Hypothetical Stated Values: Further Investigation Using Meta-Analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(6), pages 1-13.
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