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Valuing Non-Market Benefits of Participatory Sport Events Using Willingness to Travel: Payment Card vs Random Selection with Mitigation of Hypothetical Bias

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  • John C. Whitehead
  • Pamela Wicker

Abstract

This study estimates the monetary value of participation in a cycling event using a willingness to travel question. The empirical analysis is based on three years of data (2014 2016) from a post-race survey (n=976). Respondents were asked for their likelihood of revisiting the event in the following year contingent on different additional driving distances. Return visitation is higher in the randomly selected question than in the payment card format. The random selection format also produces larger willingness to pay estimates. The combination and joint estimation of stated and revealed preference data allows identifying the magnitude of hypothetical bias. Key Words: Contingent behavior method; intention to revisit; sport participation; travel cost; willingness to pay

Suggested Citation

  • John C. Whitehead & Pamela Wicker, 2018. "Valuing Non-Market Benefits of Participatory Sport Events Using Willingness to Travel: Payment Card vs Random Selection with Mitigation of Hypothetical Bias," Working Papers 18-06, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:apl:wpaper:18-06
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    File URL: http://econ.appstate.edu/RePEc/pdf/wp1806.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Whitehead, John C. & Wicker, Pamela, 2018. "Estimating willingness to pay for a cycling event using a willingness to travel approach," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 160-169.
    2. Joel Maxcy & Pamela Wicker & Joachim Prinz, 2019. "Happiness as a Reward for Torture: Is Participation in a Long-Distance Triathlon a Rational Choice?," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 20(2), pages 177-197, February.
    3. John C. Whitehead & Subhrendu K. Pattanayak & George L. Van Houtven & Brett R. Gelso, 2008. "Combining Revealed And Stated Preference Data To Estimate The Nonmarket Value Of Ecological Services: An Assessment Of The State Of The Science," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 872-908, December.
    4. John C. Whitehead & Melissa S. Weddell & Peter A. Groothuis, 2016. "Mitigating Hypothetical Bias In Stated Preference Data: Evidence From Sports Tourism," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 54(1), pages 605-611, January.
    5. Paul Downward & Peter Dawson, 2016. "Is it Pleasure or Health from Leisure that We Benefit from Most? An Analysis of Well-Being Alternatives and Implications for Policy," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 126(1), pages 443-465, March.
    6. John Whitehead, 2005. "Environmental Risk and Averting Behavior: Predictive Validity of Jointly Estimated Revealed and Stated Behavior Data," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 32(3), pages 301-316, November.
    7. John C. Whitehead & Douglas Simpson Noonan & Elizabeth Marquardt, 2014. "Criterion and predictive validity of revealed and stated preference data: the case of “Mountain Home Music†concert demand," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 3(2), pages 87-95.
    8. John C. Whitehead & Bruce K. Johnson & Daniel S. Mason & Gordon J. Walker, 2013. "Consumption Benefits Of National Hockey League Game Trips Estimated From Revealed And Stated Preference Demand Data," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 1012-1025, January.
    9. John Loomis, 2011. "What'S To Know About Hypothetical Bias In Stated Preference Valuation Studies?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 363-370, April.
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    13. Pamela Wicker & John C. Whitehead & Bruce K. Johnson & Daniel S. Mason, 2017. "The effect of sporting success and management failure on attendance demand in the Bundesliga: a revealed and stated preference travel cost approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(52), pages 5287-5295, November.
    14. Jerry Hausman, 2012. "Contingent Valuation: From Dubious to Hopeless," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(4), pages 43-56, Fall.
    15. Loomis, John B. & Gonzalez-Caban, Armando & Englin, Jeffrey E., 2001. "Testing For Differential Effects Of Forest Fires On Hiking And Mountain Biking Demand And Benefits," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 26(2), pages 1-15, December.
    16. Catherine Heyes & Anthony Heyes, 1999. "Willingness to Pay Versus Willingness to Travel: Assessing the Recreational Benefits from Dartmoor National Park," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 124-139, January.
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    1. What I did today: a little community-based research (warning: self-promotion ahead)
      by John Whitehead in Environmental Economics on 2018-06-27 09:06:42

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    Keywords

    contingent behavior method; intention to revisit; sport participation; travel cost; willingness to pay;
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