Discrete choices and the trade off between money and time: Another test of the theory of reference-dependent preferences
We consider binary choices on the trade-off between money and travel time, and formulate a model of reference-dependent preferences based on a linear reference-free utility function. Reference-dependence is captured by value functions that are centered at the reference. The model predicts a particular relationship between four commonly used valuation measures (willingness to pay (WTP), willingness to accept (WTA), equivalent gain (EG) and equivalent loss (EL)), and is has directly testable implications. Moreover, we show that the model allows recovering the underlying reference-free value of time. Based on a large survey data set, we estimate an econometric version of the model, allowing for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. We find strong supporting evidence for reference-dependence in a series of tests of high statistical power. The gap between WTP and WTA is found to exceed a factor four. Loss aversion plays an important role in explaining responses; moreover, drivers are more loss averse in the time dimension than the cost dimension. We further find evidence of asymmetrically diminishing sensitivity. Finally, we show that the fraction of ´mistakes`, in the sense that participants are observed to sometimes select dominated options, varies systematically in a way consistent with the model of reference-dependence.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: https://www.uantwerp.be/en/faculties/applied-economic-sciences/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Shlomo Benartzi & Richard H. Thaler, 1993.
"Myopic Loss Aversion and the Equity Premium Puzzle,"
NBER Working Papers
4369, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Randall, Alan & Stoll, John R, 1980. "Consumer's Surplus in Commodity Space," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 449-55, June.
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:106:y:1991:i:4:p:1039-61 is not listed on IDEAS
- Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979.
"Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
- Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Levine's Working Paper Archive 7656, David K. Levine.
- Mogens Fosgerau, 2004.
"Investigating the distribution of the value of travel time savings,"
0410005, EconWPA, revised 25 Nov 2004.
- Fosgerau, Mogens, 2006. "Investigating the distribution of the value of travel time savings," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 688-707, September.
- Mogens Fosgerau, 2004. "Investigating the distribution of the value of travel time savings," Urban/Regional 0411006, EconWPA.
- Kenneth A. Small & Clifford Winston & Jia Yan, 2005. "Uncovering the Distribution of Motorists' Preferences for Travel Time and Reliability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(4), pages 1367-1382, 07.
- Mogens Fosgerau, 2005.
"Specification Of A Model To Measure The Value Of Travel Time Savings From Binomial Data,"
- Mogens Fosgerau, 2005. "Specification Of A Model To Measure - The Value Of Travel Time Savings From Binomial Data," ERSA conference papers ersa05p77, European Regional Science Association.
- Lars Hultkrantz & Reza Mortazavi, 2001. "Anomalies in the Value of Travel-Time Changes," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, London School of Economics and University of Bath, vol. 35(2), pages 285-299, May.
- Koszegi, Botond & Rabin, Matthew, 2004.
"A Model of Reference-Dependent Preferences,"
Department of Economics, Working Paper Series
qt0w82b6nm, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- John Calfee & Clifford Winston & Randolph Stempski, 2001. "Econometric Issues In Estimating Consumer Preferences From Stated Preference Data: A Case Study Of The Value Of Automobile Travel Time," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 699-707, November.
- Peter A. Diamond & Jerry A. Hausman, 1994. "Contingent Valuation: Is Some Number Better than No Number?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(4), pages 45-64, Fall.
- John A. List, 2004.
"Neoclassical Theory Versus Prospect Theory: Evidence from the Marketplace,"
Econometric Society, vol. 72(2), pages 615-625, 03.
- John List, 2004. "Neoclassical theory versus prospect theory: Evidence from the marketplace," Framed Field Experiments 00174, The Field Experiments Website.
- John A. List, 2003. "Neoclassical Theory Versus Prospect Theory: Evidence from the Marketplace," NBER Working Papers 9736, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- repec:att:wimass:9406 is not listed on IDEAS
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:110:y:1995:i:1:p:1-21 is not listed on IDEAS
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:112:y:1997:i:2:p:479-505 is not listed on IDEAS
- James Andreoni, 1997.
"Warm-glow versus cold-prickle: the effect of positive and negative framing on cooperation in experiments,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
671, David K. Levine.
- James Andreoni, 1994. "Warm-Glow versus Cold-Prickle: The Effects of Positive and Negative Framing on Cooperation in Experiments," Experimental 9410002, EconWPA.
- Kahneman, Daniel & Knetsch, Jack L & Thaler, Richard H, 1990. "Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1325-48, December.
- Horowitz, John K. & McConnell, K. E., 2003. "Willingness to accept, willingness to pay and the income effect," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 537-545, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ant:wpaper:2006034. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joeri Nys)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.